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Post-Reformation culture struggled to navigate an era of competing truths and conflicting stories, during a time of religious controversy in the long aftermath of Luther's secession from the Church of Rome and the Gatholic response in the Council of Trent (1545-1563). Since history had rapidly become the battlefield for the quest of the true Christian tradition, Catholic and Protestant scholars were confronted with the problem of the truth-value of history and historical narration. Art, with its ability to provide a vivid depiction of past facts and events and convey a sense of authenticity, emerged as a powerful voice in the intellectual debate of the time on historical truth and its narrative representation. This paper explores how painting in post-Tridentine Rome developed specific strategies of visual rhetoric to construct convincing historical narratives and negotiate ideas of truth, ultimately shaping peoples beliefs.