在中國工業化、市場化和社會多元化的進程中，伴隨著農村產業結構的調整，農民工的規模不斷擴大，其子女的教育問題也隨之惡化。而子女的教育問題也彰顯了農民工在城鄉二元社會中的次等地位，亦即他們並未享受到與其他城鎮居民相等的「國民待遇」。面對政策和需求之間的差距，本文借助大規模問卷調查的結果，透過描述性分析，呈現出農民工社會經濟和子女教育狀況；並藉由有序Probit迴歸模型，著眼於農民工本身之特點和需求，考察了農民工的自身條件和特點對於子女學校類型選擇的影響。研究發現，農民工本身的人口特徵、行業性質、單位性質、收入水準和流動類型等，都會顯著地影響其子女在中小學階段的學校選擇。因此本文認為，農民工在子女選校的問題上，並非被動的政策接受者，而是在考量遷出／遷入地的教育政策、自身財力、未來規劃、社區融入以及子女的教育階段等多種因素基礎之後所做出的選擇。同時，本文的資料也表明，當前的中國農民工具有高度的複雜性和異質性，單一的教育政策很難滿足農民工子女的教育需求，因而在相關政策制定的過程中，政府應該全面考慮農民工個人的主觀能動因素和相關政策需求。 During the course of industrialization, marketization and social pluralization in China, the population of rural migrants working in urban areas has increased sharply along with the transformation of Chinese rural industrial structure. This paper sets against this wider policy context to examine critical educational challenges confronting peasant workers’ children, with particular reference to their personal characters as a new social group and their specific policy needs. Based on the results from a large-scale questionnaire survey on rural migrant workers conducted in seven cities in China, we provided a descriptive analysis on socio-economic status of rural migrants and educational conditions of their children. Acknowledging the gap between relevant policies and needs of policy target groups, we developed an empirical study (through an Ordered Probit Regression Model) over factors which might influence educational choices of rural migrants. The results show that: demographic attribution, occupation, incomes and migration patterns etc. would significantly affect rural migrants’ educational choices for their children. It therefore reveals that rural migrant workers are not simply passive policy recipients; when making educational choices for their children, they consider a series of factors, including educational policies, future planning, affordability, community inclusion and stage of education; moreover, the education plight of rural migrants’ children has clearly reflected their inferior social status vis-à-vis those urban ‘citizens’ due to the legacy of Chinese rural-urban duality. Thus it is suggested that during the educational policy making process, impact factors and policy needs of rural migrants should be taken into account.
|Translated title of the contribution||Educational development in the context of industrialization, marketization and social pluralization : challenges for migrant workers' children in China|
|Number of pages||22|
|Journal||教育政策論壇 = Educational Policy Forum|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Aug 2011|
- children of rural migrants
- educational challenges
- social pluralization