審鬼‧神召‧神族 : 論唐代泰山神小說

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

Abstract

唐代錄泰山神小說現存約二十篇。泰山為魂歸之處,《後漢書‧烏桓傳》: 「死者神靈歸赤山」,「如中國人死者魂歸岱山也」。《五岳真形圖》序言:「主治死生」。 泰山成為審魂判決的裁判所,因而產生審判類小說。(唐) 牛僧孺:《玄怪錄‧王國良》、(唐)陸勛(?):《集異記‧李納》(見《太平廣記》卷三百五)主角歿後甚或未歿,已被審訊及懲處。王國良「下吏之兇暴者」,因言語慘穢,「常以凌辱他人為事」,被冥官捕往泰山,遭「杖二十」,「滿背黯黑,若將潰爛然」。平盧帥李納「病篤」未亡,已被拉往泰山審判。因「為臣之辜」,「苛校滅」;在泰山被審、被罰。審判類小說中,最為特別的是出現泰山地獄。泰山為中國之冥界, 人死後所歸之處。東漢緯書《孝經援神契》:「泰山」,「主召人魂魄」。而地獄則為佛教之冥所理念。唯佛教亦藉原有的泰山審鬼觀念,植入其幽冥之主張。東漢安世高譯《佛說分別善惡所起經》、《大正大藏經》,閻羅王便被譯為泥犁太山地獄,或太山地獄;泰山亦續漸成為地獄冥所。(唐) 唐臨:《冥報記‧大業客僧》(見《太平廣記》卷九十九)載:地獄就在泰山廟附近,客僧走至一院落,但見「獄火光焰甚盛」。客僧之同學僧,「在火中號呼。不能言。形變不復可識。而血肉焦臭」。呈現可怖的地獄火刑場面。泰山神小說另一特別之處為神召類小說:召生人為泰山主簿、錄事,助理刑獄審判;而其他山神小說並沒有向陽世招募官員之舉。(唐)戴孚:《廣異記‧ 李彊友》(見《太平廣記》卷三百七十七)、(唐)牛僧孺:《玄怪錄‧董慎》(見《太平廣記》卷二百九十六)、(唐)薛漁思:《河東記‧柳澥》(見《太平廣記》卷三百八)都是泰山神召官員之篇。李彊友被召為泰山主簿,查證屠者「未合死至」而放還。董慎被召為錄事,助審「疑獄」:閩州司馬因是「太元夫人三等親」,獲減刑「三等」,所引起的「喧訟」。柳澥被召為泰山主簿,「每日判決繁多」。(見《河東記‧李敏求》,刊《太平廣記》卷一百五十七,是篇亦載柳澥事)三人被召為主簿、錄事,都有一個共通點,就是品格廉明。李彊友「於官嚴毅」;董慎「性公正。明法理」:柳澥正義凜言:「豈可將他公事。從其私慾乎。」神召類小說,召正義之人至泰山斷案,乃泰山能主持公正審判類小說之延續;營造泰山裁判公允之形象。 泰山神族至唐而擴展,因而有神族類小說,並與人間界產生不少互動。(唐)《冥報記‧ 兗州人》(見《太平廣記》卷二百九十七),(唐)戴孚:《廣異記‧趙州參軍妻》(見《太平廣記》卷二百九十八),(唐)《玉堂閒話‧ 葛氏婦》(見《太平廣記》卷三百一十三)都是泰山神族小說。〈兗州人〉敘泰山四郎與兗州人的跨界情誼,為其杖賊、救妻,堪稱知己。〈趙州參軍妻〉和〈葛氏婦〉則敘泰山三郎搶人間美婦,為泰山神小說注入權貴搶婚的諷刺元素。
There are around 20 Taishan fiction of the Tang Dynasty. Taishan is a place of the dead (Hou Hanshu) as well as ruling of the deadly souls (Wuyue Zhenxing Tu).Taishan is a place of trial and judgment that leads to the growth of the category of Taishan Judgment Fiction such as “Wang Guoliang”and “Li Na”(Taiping Guangji Vol. 305) , the protagonists are being judged even before death. Wang Guoliang, the low ranked official who bullies the common people is punished in Taishan: being beaten up. The high ranked official Li Na who is rebellious against the Emperor’s rule is being punished in Taishan too. Actually with the spread of Buddhism using Taishan to represent hell in the translation of Buddhist scriptures (Fenbie Shane Suoqi Jing), Taishan has become the underworld of hell in China. In the story of “Daye Keseng”, the Buddhist monk witnesses his classmate being burned by fire in the Taishan Hell which is a terrifying scene. Another category of the Taishan Fiction is the calling fiction that the God of Taishan seeks help from human beings as his officials for the work of Taishan trials such as in “Li Qiangyou” (Taiping Guangji Vol. 377), “Dong Shen” (Taiping Guangji Vol. 296), “Liu Xie” (Taiping Guangji Vol. 308). Li Qiangyou becomes the Taishan official in the night time. Dong Shen helps to settle a very difficult and controversial case while Liu Xie shoulders the heavy workload of the numerous daily trials. Li Qiangyou, Dong Shen and Liu Xie are upright people with integrity which is the essential entity upheld by Taishan in the calling and hiring of Taishan officials that also reflects the righteousness of the Taishan God.The last type is the Taishan Family fiction which includes “Yanzhou Ren” (Taiping Guangji Vol. 297), “Zhouzhou Canjun Qi” (Taiping Guangji Vol. 298) and “Geshi Fu” (Taiping Guangji Vol. 313). “Yanzhou Ren” represents the human-god friendship while “Zhouzhou Canjun Qi”and “Geshi Fu”, with the fourth son of Taishan God forcing beautiful women to be his mistresses reflects the bully of the people with authority snatching women as they like.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)465-504
Journal唐研究
Volume25
Publication statusPublished - May 2020

Bibliographical note

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ISBN: 9787301167991

Keywords

  • 泰山神
  • 審判
  • 地獄
  • 神召
  • 神族
  • God of Taishan
  • Trial
  • Hell
  • The Calling of God
  • God’s Family

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