機鋒與神理 : 王夫之《遣興詩》及其詩學意義初探

Translated title of the contribution: Zen Witticisms and Spiritual Patterns: Wang Fuzhi's "Letting out What Stirred Me" Poems and Their Significance in the Light of His Poetic Theory

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

Abstract

《讀甘蔗生遣興詩次韻而和之》七十六首是王夫之四十四歲隱居衡陽時,偶然讀到友人金堡舊年之《遣興詩》次韻而作。其後又有《廣遣興》詩五十八首。兩組詩最明顯的寫作特色在於幾乎句句用事,涵蓋了經史諸子和道家丹術、通俗文學等各個領域,而用事手法又極拗峭,其用意頗不易曉。其中尤爲突出的是大量的禪語和禪典的運用,是爲他生平詩作用禪最爲密集者。因此兩組詩初看之下,似乎顛覆了王夫之一貫堅持的詩以道情、情景交融之核心主張。但如果仔細尋繹其中用事和構象的邏輯規律,便會發現這套規律其實是船山詩學主要的創作觀念──例如“以神理相取”、“取勢”、“蟬聯暗換”等等──在實踐中的運作。更重要的是,這兩組詩在詩學創作方面有明顯的自我指涉和內省意義,與王夫之的詩選評論也存在著確切的關聯。因此,對於全面瞭解船山詩學體系,特別是其理論和實踐之間的關係,“遣興詩”和“廣遣興”是至關重要的環節。本文將以探討船山詩學的理論和實踐之間的關聯爲目標,取《讀甘蔗生遣興詩次韻而和之》爲“遣興詩”與“廣遣興詩”的代表作,作深入解讀,重點關注統一其命意和寫法層面的邏輯規律。然後,與船山詩學創作觀念相印證,作爲他日全面深入考察之基礎。

The rich extensive scholarship produced over the last few decades on Wang Fuzhi's poetic theory has neglected to take into account an essential component-his own poetry. In a set of seventy-six poems titled "Letting out What Stirred Me" and a further fifty-eight titled "Letting out What Stirred Me-Broadened," written in the years 1662-1663 in Hengyang, Wang Fuzhi asks the questions of life and death in a sweeping representation of the patterns that underlie the changing universe. The two sets of poems are the first culmination of Wang's thoughts and practice in poetry before the age of fifty, containing many self-reflective lines about the role of the poet and the use of language in poetry. The process that he identifies at the start as the "work of Creation" shares the same mechanism as the process by which the poet weaves his web of images. The world thus created is a visionary one in which changes in human life, history, and culture are reorganized through concrete images from the natural world, cognized through the poet's senses in the time and space of specific poems. The poems are also a remarkable play of words that pushes the limits of polysemy and poetic grammar. Through an analysis of the first set of "Letting out What Stirred Me" poems, I demonstrate that on the one hand, Wang's early poetry affirms the core ideas in outlined in his later theoretical works, while on the other, exceeds their scope in the world and poetic vision that it presents. In doing so, I propose a roadmap to rethink Wang's poetic thought in the light of his own compositional practices.
Translated title of the contributionZen Witticisms and Spiritual Patterns: Wang Fuzhi's "Letting out What Stirred Me" Poems and Their Significance in the Light of His Poetic Theory
Original languageChinese (Traditional)
Pages (from-to)137-165
Number of pages29
Journal人文中國學報
Issue number29
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • 王夫之
  • 明遺民詩
  • 遣興詩
  • 船山詩學
  • 禪語
  • Wang Fuzhi
  • Poetry of the Ming yimin
  • "Letting out What Stirred Me" poems
  • Wang Fuzhi's poetic theory
  • Zen witticisms in poetry

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