在前一篇文章〈牟宗三先生對「為何道德」之議論初探〉中，我闡釋儒家對道德的理由的觀點：身為擁有本心本性的人，便應該將本心本性實現出來。該文亦指出，這個結論遺留了一些問題：單憑擁有本心本性這事實，便推論出「將本心本性實現出來」的應然判斷，是否犯了從實然推論出應然的謬誤？其次，倘若認為是否要實現本心本性是一個自由意志的選擇，而不是邏輯的推論結果，那麼可以避過上述的問題，卻產生另一問題：一個擁有本心本性的人，可以拒絕將之實現出來，即不認取「實現本心本性」是道德的理由，倘若如此，這個人必須承認自己是非理性的。那麼，不去實現本心本性縱使是非理性，仍是被允許的（對於理論理性而言）。此則摧毀了「應該道德」的必然性。在這裏，我們見到一個兩難的處境。本文首先要解決這兩個問題。 <eng>In the previous article "An Inquiry into Mou Tsung-san's Discussion on 'Why Be Moral'", I have made an explication on the reason for being moral as held by Confucianism: A person who is endowed with the original heart-mind has an obligation to actualize it. The article has also pointed out that an is-ought problem will be derived from this affirmation. Nevertheless, if it is considered that the actualization of the original heart-mind is not a conclusion reached by logical reasoning, but rather a choice made by free will, then the problem mentioned can be avoided. However, another problem might arise: A person who possesses the original heart-mind can refuse to actualize it thus does not endorse ＂actualizing the original heart-mind＂ as a reason for being moral. If it is the case, then this person has to admit that he or she is non-rational. Hence, even though not to actualize is non-rational, it is still permitted, from the point of (theoretical) reason. This result would undermine the necessity of morality. Here we are facing a dilemma which will be firstly dealt with in the present article.
|Original language||Chinese (Traditional)|
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||鵝湖學誌 = Legein Semi-annual Journal|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Dec 2016|
- original heart-mind and original nature