陽醜‧鬼王與神堂 : 論〈慶豐年五鬼鬧鍾馗〉的造神過程

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

Abstract

〈慶豐年五鬼鬧鍾馗〉是有記載最早的「五鬼鬧判」戲,然而「五鬼鬧鍾馗」式的故事,至少在明萬曆三十年(1602)前,已在民間廣泛流傳。約寫於明隆慶二年(1568)至萬曆三十年(1602)《金瓶梅詞話》六十五回,李瓶兒死後,演出百戲便包括「五鬼鬧判」。 〈慶豐年五鬼鬧鍾馗〉一劇,與前鍾馗文本不同處在於鍾馗在劇中,需要對付眾多鬼魅,並具備完整的由人到鬼至成神、造神過程。鍾馗在劇中,並非具備神通或有神助,卻能成神,強調的是以其人格美。本文的重點,在探討鍾馗作為醜神的「陽醜」:外貌醜與人格美的不協調(incongruity)。鍾馗成為鬼王,必須降伏有如寓言人物(allegorical figure)的鬼魅。查劇中出現的大、小耗鬼和五鬼,乃首次出現於鍾馗故事中。本文追查所提及鬼類的由來,以見鍾馗降伏大小耗鬼和五鬼,與登上鬼王位置的重要性。此外,神堂的獲得乃鍾馗成神的重要關鍵。〈慶豐年五鬼鬧鍾馗〉對鍾馗前文本作出「創造性背叛」(creative treason),一反鍾馗為唐明皇「服務」:驅鬼的「傳統」,改為替殿頭官驅鬼,以強化士人懷才不遇及官員奸貪的主題。本文透過對鬼(大小耗鬼、五鬼)神(鍾馗和五道將軍)元素的探討,展示明代首次出現原整的成神過程的鍾馗文本,如何達至成熟的階段,並對後世鍾馗作品產生重要影響。
“Celebrating and Abundant Harvest the Five Ghosts Tease Zhong Kui” is the first drama on the tale of "Five Ghosts Tease Zhong Kui" which appears in the Ming Dynasty. In “Celebrating and Abundant Harvest the Five Ghosts Tease Zhong Kui”, Zhong Kui has to subdue a lot of ghosts. In addition, there is a complete deity-making process. The essence of deity-making is not due to the great magic power of Zhong Kui. It is the power of the character, integrity and righteousness that help Zhong Kui to conquer evil forces. This paper would discuss the incongruity of the ugly appearance and inner beauty of Zhong Kui. In addition, ghosts such as the five ghosts would be traced from its origin to bring out the importance of subduing these ghosts for Zhong Kui to become the ghost king. Different from the pre-text of the Zhong Kui tales, in “Celebrating and abundant Harvest the Five Ghosts Tease Zhong Kui”, Zhong Kui conquers the ghosts not for the king but for the court officer which is a kind of creative treason. This "action" brings Zhong Kui the temple which is an essential part of the deity-making. This article focuses on the role of ghosts and deity to show the process of making the Ghost King . “Celebrating and Abundant Harvest the Five Ghosts Tease Zhong Kui” is a mature Zhong Kui tale which inflicts influence on the related Zhong Kui tales in the following decades.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)253-289
Number of pages37
Journal人文中國學報
Volume20
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2014

Keywords

  • 慶豐年五鬼鬧鍾馗
  • 造神
  • 陽醜
  • 人格美
  • 不協調
  • 創造性背叛
  • Five Ghosts Tease Zhong Kui
  • Deity-making
  • Ugliness
  • Inner beauty
  • Incongruity
  • Creative Treason

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