A highly efficient piezoelectric elastomer with a green product cycle from fabrication to degradation

Xinyu WANG, Qinan ZHANG, Hongyi ZHU, Fang WU, Yanxiu QIAO, Kaihong JIA, Yong XIANG*, Xiaoran HU*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Piezoelectric generators (PEGs) have applications in future wearable and implantable technologies, but suffer from insufficient flexibility, poor biocompatibility, facile biodegradation, and low energy output. In this work, a design concept for a piezoelectric elastomer is proposed. Uniquely, we focus on developing a complete “green” design concept, considering the selection of a bio-based monomer, polymer fabrication, and biodegradation. The piezoelectric elastomer, which was prepared by the copolymerization of lactate, 1,4-butanediol, and sebacate monomers, is capable of generating an output voltage of 303.75 mV cm−2 and an output current of 1.92 × 10–2 mA cm−2, which are 7.11 times and 4.01 times, respectively, higher than those of a conventional polyvinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene copolymer (PVDF-TrFE)-based PEG under the same measurement conditions. Such efficient piezoelectric conversion is attributed to the reduced elastic modulus of the elastomer, which resulted from the random polymerization between piezoelectric lactate monomers and linear 1,4-butanediol and sebacate monomers. As a result, the elastomer generates a greater piezoelectric charge on deformation than traditional PVDF-TrFE. Further, the relative growth rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells grown on the modified elastomer was unaffected, demonstrating the good biocompatibility of the piezoelectric elastomer. On the basis of the overall environmentally friendly product cycle and high piezoelectric output, this PEG shows promise for applications in future wearable and implantable technologies. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4840-4852
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Materials Science
Issue number11
Early online date8 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

This work was supported by Start-up Funding of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (Y030212059003040) and Chinesisch-Deutsche Zentrum für Wissenschaftsförderung, China (GZ 1697).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


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