A novel tree-based representation for evolving analog circuits and its application to memristor-based pulse generation circuit

Xinming SHI, Leandro L. MINKU, Xin YAO

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


When applying evolutionary algorithms to circuit design automation, circuit representation is the first consideration. There have been several studies applying different circuit representations. However, they still have some problems, such as lack of design ability, which means the diversity of evolved circuits was limited by the circuit representation, and inefficient transformation from circuit representation into SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) netlist. In this paper, a novel tree-based circuit representation for analog circuits is proposed, which is equipped with an intuitive and three-terminal devices friendly mapping rule between circuit representation and SPICE netlist, as well as a suitable crossover operator. Based on the proposed representation, a framework for automated analog circuit design using genetic programming is proposed to evolve both the circuit topology and device values. Three benchmark circuits are applied to evaluate the proposed approach, showing that the proposed method is feasible and evolves analog circuits with better fitness and number of components while using less fitness evaluations than existing approaches. Furthermore, considering physical scalability limits of conventional circuit elements and the increased interest in emerging technologies, a memristor-based pulse generation circuit is also evolved based on the proposed method. The feasibility of the evolved circuits is verified by circuit simulation successfully. The experiment results show that the evolved memristive circuit is more compact and has better energy efficiency compared with existing manually-designed circuits. © 2022, The Author(s).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-493
Number of pages41
JournalGenetic Programming and Evolvable Machines
Issue number4
Early online date21 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

This work was supported by Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory (Grant No. 2020B121201001), the Program for Guangdong Introducing Innovative and Enterpreneurial Teams (Grant No. 2017ZT07X386), Shenzhen Science and Technology Program (Grant No. KQTD2016112514355531), and the Research Institute of Trustworthy Autonomous Systems (RITAS).


  • Automated analog circuit design
  • Circuit representation
  • Evolvable hardware
  • Genetic programming
  • Memristor


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