南宋宫廷画师之供职模式研究

Translated title of the contribution: A study of the professional modes for Southern Song Dynasty palace painters

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)Researchpeer-review

Abstract

前辈学者的精密研究清楚勾勒下金、元、明、清宫廷绘画机构,藉此可知金、元、明均无单一画院。而进一步的问题是,上溯至北宋,画院单独存在,省舍职制单一而独立,如此职能完善的宫廷画院为什么至后世逆向施行,反而倒退成没有画院?金元明清宫廷绘画运作机制与北宋画院迥不相同,那么朝代更迭之际,宫廷绘画机构职能制度如何转化如何过渡,因因何产生霄壤之别呢?寻着此一线索,本文目的在于探究南宋画师如何供职于宫廷。研究结果指出,南宋宫廷画师分御前画师、非御前画师两大类型服务模式,“非御前画师”散隶三省六部,以工部暨下辖匠作机构尤为集中,金、元、明初、清代宫廷绘画运作部门亦大致集中于此一范围。南宋“卸前画师”由特务组织“皇城司”遣调,开启了明代中叶画师依附厂卫制度、系挂锦衣卫武职官衔之先河,因为南朱皇城司即明东厂制度之前身。而“御前画师”值班当日伴驾随行,轮值地点随君王行踪而定,对清代启祥宫、如意馆等猜代画院运作机制亦造成相当程度的影响。

The author regards the Southern Song painting academy as a transitional institution between the Northern Song and Jin-Yuan periods, and has published an article establishing that the Southern Song court had no imperial painting academy. Following on from the question of the lack of an academy, the author examines how artists were able to work for the court. Southern Song court painters were divided into two types: those who could and those who couldn't work in the 'emperor's presence' (yuqian). Those who could not work in the emperor's presence were scattered throughout government departments, with most concentrated in the artisans' organisations controlled by the Board of Works (Gongbu). This is in fact with consistent with government practice in employing court painters in the Jin, Yuan, early-Ming and Qing dynasties. In the Southern Song those painters who could work in the emperor's presence were employed instead by the Huangcheng Si, a special office of the imperial household; this was the forerunner of the system of appointing painters in the mid-Ming period to the Jinyi Wei which formed part of the Changwei system, the Huangcheng Si being the forerunner of the household security agency that in the Ming became the Dongchang (Eastern Factory). The system by which those painters who could work in the emperor's presence were to be in attendance at the court and when the emperor undertook journeys from the palace was a forerunner of the work schedules of those court painters in the Qing dynasty who were employed in Qixiang Gong and Ruyi Guan.
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)230-251
Number of pages22
Journal故宫学刊 = Journal of Gugong Studies
Volume3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Palace
Song Dynasty
Song
Painters
Emperor
Court Painter
Forerunner
Household
Ming
Qing Dynasty
Government
Factory
Artist
Controlled
Artisans
Journey
Ming Dynasty
Gong

Keywords

  • 《武林旧事》御前画师
  • 非御前画师
  • 工部
  • 修内司
  • 轮值
  • 皇城司
  • 锦衣卫
  • Wulin jiushi
  • painters who could work in the emperor's presence
  • painters who could not work in the emperor's presence
  • Huangcheng Si
  • Changwei system
  • Jinyi Wei

Cite this

@article{6443954f89f846ebae45e196df4fb475,
title = "南宋宫廷画师之供职模式研究",
abstract = "前辈学者的精密研究清楚勾勒下金、元、明、清宫廷绘画机构,藉此可知金、元、明均无单一画院。而进一步的问题是,上溯至北宋,画院单独存在,省舍职制单一而独立,如此职能完善的宫廷画院为什么至后世逆向施行,反而倒退成没有画院?金元明清宫廷绘画运作机制与北宋画院迥不相同,那么朝代更迭之际,宫廷绘画机构职能制度如何转化如何过渡,因因何产生霄壤之别呢?寻着此一线索,本文目的在于探究南宋画师如何供职于宫廷。研究结果指出,南宋宫廷画师分御前画师、非御前画师两大类型服务模式,“非御前画师”散隶三省六部,以工部暨下辖匠作机构尤为集中,金、元、明初、清代宫廷绘画运作部门亦大致集中于此一范围。南宋“卸前画师”由特务组织“皇城司”遣调,开启了明代中叶画师依附厂卫制度、系挂锦衣卫武职官衔之先河,因为南朱皇城司即明东厂制度之前身。而“御前画师”值班当日伴驾随行,轮值地点随君王行踪而定,对清代启祥宫、如意馆等猜代画院运作机制亦造成相当程度的影响。The author regards the Southern Song painting academy as a transitional institution between the Northern Song and Jin-Yuan periods, and has published an article establishing that the Southern Song court had no imperial painting academy. Following on from the question of the lack of an academy, the author examines how artists were able to work for the court. Southern Song court painters were divided into two types: those who could and those who couldn't work in the 'emperor's presence' (yuqian). Those who could not work in the emperor's presence were scattered throughout government departments, with most concentrated in the artisans' organisations controlled by the Board of Works (Gongbu). This is in fact with consistent with government practice in employing court painters in the Jin, Yuan, early-Ming and Qing dynasties. In the Southern Song those painters who could work in the emperor's presence were employed instead by the Huangcheng Si, a special office of the imperial household; this was the forerunner of the system of appointing painters in the mid-Ming period to the Jinyi Wei which formed part of the Changwei system, the Huangcheng Si being the forerunner of the household security agency that in the Ming became the Dongchang (Eastern Factory). The system by which those painters who could work in the emperor's presence were to be in attendance at the court and when the emperor undertook journeys from the palace was a forerunner of the work schedules of those court painters in the Qing dynasty who were employed in Qixiang Gong and Ruyi Guan.",
keywords = "《武林旧事》御前画师, 非御前画师, 工部, 修内司, 轮值, 皇城司, 锦衣卫, Wulin jiushi, painters who could work in the emperor's presence, painters who could not work in the emperor's presence, Huangcheng Si, Changwei system, Jinyi Wei",
author = "彭慧萍",
year = "2007",
month = "9",
language = "Chinese (Simplified)",
volume = "3",
pages = "230--251",
journal = "故宫学刊 = Journal of Gugong Studies",

}

南宋宫廷画师之供职模式研究. / 彭慧萍.

In: 故宫学刊 = Journal of Gugong Studies, Vol. 3, 09.2007, p. 230-251.

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)Researchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - 南宋宫廷画师之供职模式研究

AU - 彭慧萍, null

PY - 2007/9

Y1 - 2007/9

N2 - 前辈学者的精密研究清楚勾勒下金、元、明、清宫廷绘画机构,藉此可知金、元、明均无单一画院。而进一步的问题是,上溯至北宋,画院单独存在,省舍职制单一而独立,如此职能完善的宫廷画院为什么至后世逆向施行,反而倒退成没有画院?金元明清宫廷绘画运作机制与北宋画院迥不相同,那么朝代更迭之际,宫廷绘画机构职能制度如何转化如何过渡,因因何产生霄壤之别呢?寻着此一线索,本文目的在于探究南宋画师如何供职于宫廷。研究结果指出,南宋宫廷画师分御前画师、非御前画师两大类型服务模式,“非御前画师”散隶三省六部,以工部暨下辖匠作机构尤为集中,金、元、明初、清代宫廷绘画运作部门亦大致集中于此一范围。南宋“卸前画师”由特务组织“皇城司”遣调,开启了明代中叶画师依附厂卫制度、系挂锦衣卫武职官衔之先河,因为南朱皇城司即明东厂制度之前身。而“御前画师”值班当日伴驾随行,轮值地点随君王行踪而定,对清代启祥宫、如意馆等猜代画院运作机制亦造成相当程度的影响。The author regards the Southern Song painting academy as a transitional institution between the Northern Song and Jin-Yuan periods, and has published an article establishing that the Southern Song court had no imperial painting academy. Following on from the question of the lack of an academy, the author examines how artists were able to work for the court. Southern Song court painters were divided into two types: those who could and those who couldn't work in the 'emperor's presence' (yuqian). Those who could not work in the emperor's presence were scattered throughout government departments, with most concentrated in the artisans' organisations controlled by the Board of Works (Gongbu). This is in fact with consistent with government practice in employing court painters in the Jin, Yuan, early-Ming and Qing dynasties. In the Southern Song those painters who could work in the emperor's presence were employed instead by the Huangcheng Si, a special office of the imperial household; this was the forerunner of the system of appointing painters in the mid-Ming period to the Jinyi Wei which formed part of the Changwei system, the Huangcheng Si being the forerunner of the household security agency that in the Ming became the Dongchang (Eastern Factory). The system by which those painters who could work in the emperor's presence were to be in attendance at the court and when the emperor undertook journeys from the palace was a forerunner of the work schedules of those court painters in the Qing dynasty who were employed in Qixiang Gong and Ruyi Guan.

AB - 前辈学者的精密研究清楚勾勒下金、元、明、清宫廷绘画机构,藉此可知金、元、明均无单一画院。而进一步的问题是,上溯至北宋,画院单独存在,省舍职制单一而独立,如此职能完善的宫廷画院为什么至后世逆向施行,反而倒退成没有画院?金元明清宫廷绘画运作机制与北宋画院迥不相同,那么朝代更迭之际,宫廷绘画机构职能制度如何转化如何过渡,因因何产生霄壤之别呢?寻着此一线索,本文目的在于探究南宋画师如何供职于宫廷。研究结果指出,南宋宫廷画师分御前画师、非御前画师两大类型服务模式,“非御前画师”散隶三省六部,以工部暨下辖匠作机构尤为集中,金、元、明初、清代宫廷绘画运作部门亦大致集中于此一范围。南宋“卸前画师”由特务组织“皇城司”遣调,开启了明代中叶画师依附厂卫制度、系挂锦衣卫武职官衔之先河,因为南朱皇城司即明东厂制度之前身。而“御前画师”值班当日伴驾随行,轮值地点随君王行踪而定,对清代启祥宫、如意馆等猜代画院运作机制亦造成相当程度的影响。The author regards the Southern Song painting academy as a transitional institution between the Northern Song and Jin-Yuan periods, and has published an article establishing that the Southern Song court had no imperial painting academy. Following on from the question of the lack of an academy, the author examines how artists were able to work for the court. Southern Song court painters were divided into two types: those who could and those who couldn't work in the 'emperor's presence' (yuqian). Those who could not work in the emperor's presence were scattered throughout government departments, with most concentrated in the artisans' organisations controlled by the Board of Works (Gongbu). This is in fact with consistent with government practice in employing court painters in the Jin, Yuan, early-Ming and Qing dynasties. In the Southern Song those painters who could work in the emperor's presence were employed instead by the Huangcheng Si, a special office of the imperial household; this was the forerunner of the system of appointing painters in the mid-Ming period to the Jinyi Wei which formed part of the Changwei system, the Huangcheng Si being the forerunner of the household security agency that in the Ming became the Dongchang (Eastern Factory). The system by which those painters who could work in the emperor's presence were to be in attendance at the court and when the emperor undertook journeys from the palace was a forerunner of the work schedules of those court painters in the Qing dynasty who were employed in Qixiang Gong and Ruyi Guan.

KW - 《武林旧事》御前画师

KW - 非御前画师

KW - 工部

KW - 修内司

KW - 轮值

KW - 皇城司

KW - 锦衣卫

KW - Wulin jiushi

KW - painters who could work in the emperor's presence

KW - painters who could not work in the emperor's presence

KW - Huangcheng Si

KW - Changwei system

KW - Jinyi Wei

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M3 - Journal Article (refereed)

VL - 3

SP - 230

EP - 251

JO - 故宫学刊 = Journal of Gugong Studies

JF - 故宫学刊 = Journal of Gugong Studies

ER -