两宋宫廷书画储藏制度之变 : 以秘阁为核心的鉴藏机制研究

Translated title of the contribution: A study of the system for authenticating and collecting works of art centred on the Palace Library (Bige) of the Southern Song Dynasty

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

Abstract

两宋宫廷储藏书画之主要机构为肇建于端拱元年 (988年) 之“秘阁”。学界目前对两宋秘阁之宫廷书画鉴藏机构鲜少涉及;然而在两宋历史的渐变进程中,秘阁院址几经迁徙,其省舍建筑、规模设备、储藏库房、职事权限呈现阶段性之异动,凡此异动,微妙波及两宋宫廷书画创作机构之权力。审谛秘阁内部的发展变化,北宋初期的秘阁仅为书库,秘阁藏品搁置混乱;南宋秘阁以秘书省“经籍案”专掌藏品储藏管理,制订出一套科学管理方案及定期查验制度。南宋秘阁设备完善,功能亦由储藏至鉴藏,并进而取代、接掌了原归画院行使的六项职权,这指涉南宋秘府职事增多,被赋予之权限相对扩大,画师职事则反遭萎缩。以上变化有特定的历史背景暨赖以支撑之外在条件,承载并推动了两宋秘阁职制地位之流变。北宋初期秘阁地位低落,然而一入南宋,华阁飞升,秘书省于皇朝政治体系中岿然杰出。南宋秘阁仰载皇权,书画藏品开放对象转为朝中官僚集团,鉴藏制度吸纳入庞大的官僚机构运作体系。作为官制的一环,当皇权集中,政局稳定,或出于帝王强烈的赞助意愿,秘府权限向上攀升,秘阁收藏之规模力度亦随势攀升,于是秘阁有效率地发挥其外搜、内藏之双向功能。

The “Palace Library” (Bige) established in the 1st year (988) of the Duangong reign period was to be the main institution in the palaces of the Northern and Southern Song dynasties for collecting paintings. Scholars today rarely touch on the Palace Library’s role as the main institution behind the palace collection of calligraphy and painting, yet in the course of Song Dynasty history the Palace Library moved location several times and there were incremental changes in the buildings it occupied within the palace, its standard fittings, its repositories and in the restrictions placed on its staff that influenced its authority as a creative institution for calligraphy and painting in the Song Dynasty palace. A close examination of the internal developments at the Palace Library reveals that in the early period of the Northern Song Dynasty the Palace Library served merely as a book repository and that its collections were arranged in a chaotic fashion. In the Southern Song Dynasty the Palace Library managed special collections of items, as the Books Section (Jingji-an) of the Department of the Palace Library (Bishusheng), and a set of regulations for managing the collection and conducting periodic inspections was instituted. In the Southern Song Dynasty the installations of the Palace Library were perfected and the institution made the shift from being a mere collecting body to an organization responsible for also authenticating items in the collection and it came to assume all of the six tasks that had been originally the responsibility of the Painting Academy of the palace, thereby increasing the body’s number of positions, power and responsibilities at the expense of the master painters. These changes in the power and position of the Palace Library in the course of the Song Dynasty were the result of specific historical circumstances and were dependent on a supportive external environment. In the Northern Song period, the Palace Library had a low position but with the Southern Song Dynasty it was greatly elevated and was prominent in the imperial administrative system centred on the Department of the Palace Library. In the Southern Song Dynasty the Palace Library upheld and served as a vehicle for imperial power and the encouragement of the collection of calligraphy and painting targeted the groups of officials at court while the system of authentication was absorbed within the massive state bureaucracy. With the concentration of imperial power and the stabilization of the political situation, the power and authority of the Palace Library also rose, as a circle of the bureaucracy under the direct ardent patronage of the emperors. The scope and powers of the collecting role of the Palace Library also increased and so the library was effective as a dual organization empowered to collect works from outside the palace and manage the palace’s collection.
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)12-40
Number of pages29
Journal故宫博物院院刊 = Palace Museum Journal
Volume2005
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jan 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Palace
Song Dynasty
Works of Art
Calligraphy
Imperial Power
Bureaucracy
Responsibility
Authority
Repository

Keywords

  • 秘府
  • 秘阁
  • 秘书省
  • 尚书省
  • 宫廷书画鉴藏
  • Bifu
  • Bige
  • Bishusheng
  • the authentication and collection of calligraphy and painting by the palace

Cite this

@article{8dff7b928d054321a4fa2ca4a14d5114,
title = "两宋宫廷书画储藏制度之变 : 以秘阁为核心的鉴藏机制研究",
abstract = "两宋宫廷储藏书画之主要机构为肇建于端拱元年 (988年) 之“秘阁”。学界目前对两宋秘阁之宫廷书画鉴藏机构鲜少涉及;然而在两宋历史的渐变进程中,秘阁院址几经迁徙,其省舍建筑、规模设备、储藏库房、职事权限呈现阶段性之异动,凡此异动,微妙波及两宋宫廷书画创作机构之权力。审谛秘阁内部的发展变化,北宋初期的秘阁仅为书库,秘阁藏品搁置混乱;南宋秘阁以秘书省“经籍案”专掌藏品储藏管理,制订出一套科学管理方案及定期查验制度。南宋秘阁设备完善,功能亦由储藏至鉴藏,并进而取代、接掌了原归画院行使的六项职权,这指涉南宋秘府职事增多,被赋予之权限相对扩大,画师职事则反遭萎缩。以上变化有特定的历史背景暨赖以支撑之外在条件,承载并推动了两宋秘阁职制地位之流变。北宋初期秘阁地位低落,然而一入南宋,华阁飞升,秘书省于皇朝政治体系中岿然杰出。南宋秘阁仰载皇权,书画藏品开放对象转为朝中官僚集团,鉴藏制度吸纳入庞大的官僚机构运作体系。作为官制的一环,当皇权集中,政局稳定,或出于帝王强烈的赞助意愿,秘府权限向上攀升,秘阁收藏之规模力度亦随势攀升,于是秘阁有效率地发挥其外搜、内藏之双向功能。 The “Palace Library” (Bige) established in the 1st year (988) of the Duangong reign period was to be the main institution in the palaces of the Northern and Southern Song dynasties for collecting paintings. Scholars today rarely touch on the Palace Library’s role as the main institution behind the palace collection of calligraphy and painting, yet in the course of Song Dynasty history the Palace Library moved location several times and there were incremental changes in the buildings it occupied within the palace, its standard fittings, its repositories and in the restrictions placed on its staff that influenced its authority as a creative institution for calligraphy and painting in the Song Dynasty palace. A close examination of the internal developments at the Palace Library reveals that in the early period of the Northern Song Dynasty the Palace Library served merely as a book repository and that its collections were arranged in a chaotic fashion. In the Southern Song Dynasty the Palace Library managed special collections of items, as the Books Section (Jingji-an) of the Department of the Palace Library (Bishusheng), and a set of regulations for managing the collection and conducting periodic inspections was instituted. In the Southern Song Dynasty the installations of the Palace Library were perfected and the institution made the shift from being a mere collecting body to an organization responsible for also authenticating items in the collection and it came to assume all of the six tasks that had been originally the responsibility of the Painting Academy of the palace, thereby increasing the body’s number of positions, power and responsibilities at the expense of the master painters. These changes in the power and position of the Palace Library in the course of the Song Dynasty were the result of specific historical circumstances and were dependent on a supportive external environment. In the Northern Song period, the Palace Library had a low position but with the Southern Song Dynasty it was greatly elevated and was prominent in the imperial administrative system centred on the Department of the Palace Library. In the Southern Song Dynasty the Palace Library upheld and served as a vehicle for imperial power and the encouragement of the collection of calligraphy and painting targeted the groups of officials at court while the system of authentication was absorbed within the massive state bureaucracy. With the concentration of imperial power and the stabilization of the political situation, the power and authority of the Palace Library also rose, as a circle of the bureaucracy under the direct ardent patronage of the emperors. The scope and powers of the collecting role of the Palace Library also increased and so the library was effective as a dual organization empowered to collect works from outside the palace and manage the palace’s collection.",
keywords = "秘府, 秘阁, 秘书省, 尚书省, 宫廷书画鉴藏, Bifu, Bige, Bishusheng, the authentication and collection of calligraphy and painting by the palace",
author = "彭慧萍",
year = "2005",
month = "1",
day = "30",
doi = "10.16319/j.cnki.0452-7402.2005.01.002",
language = "Chinese (Simplified)",
volume = "2005",
pages = "12--40",
journal = "故宫博物院院刊 = Palace Museum Journal",
issn = "0452-7402",
number = "1",

}

两宋宫廷书画储藏制度之变 : 以秘阁为核心的鉴藏机制研究. / 彭慧萍.

In: 故宫博物院院刊 = Palace Museum Journal, Vol. 2005, No. 1, 30.01.2005, p. 12-40.

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

TY - JOUR

T1 - 两宋宫廷书画储藏制度之变 : 以秘阁为核心的鉴藏机制研究

AU - 彭慧萍, null

PY - 2005/1/30

Y1 - 2005/1/30

N2 - 两宋宫廷储藏书画之主要机构为肇建于端拱元年 (988年) 之“秘阁”。学界目前对两宋秘阁之宫廷书画鉴藏机构鲜少涉及;然而在两宋历史的渐变进程中,秘阁院址几经迁徙,其省舍建筑、规模设备、储藏库房、职事权限呈现阶段性之异动,凡此异动,微妙波及两宋宫廷书画创作机构之权力。审谛秘阁内部的发展变化,北宋初期的秘阁仅为书库,秘阁藏品搁置混乱;南宋秘阁以秘书省“经籍案”专掌藏品储藏管理,制订出一套科学管理方案及定期查验制度。南宋秘阁设备完善,功能亦由储藏至鉴藏,并进而取代、接掌了原归画院行使的六项职权,这指涉南宋秘府职事增多,被赋予之权限相对扩大,画师职事则反遭萎缩。以上变化有特定的历史背景暨赖以支撑之外在条件,承载并推动了两宋秘阁职制地位之流变。北宋初期秘阁地位低落,然而一入南宋,华阁飞升,秘书省于皇朝政治体系中岿然杰出。南宋秘阁仰载皇权,书画藏品开放对象转为朝中官僚集团,鉴藏制度吸纳入庞大的官僚机构运作体系。作为官制的一环,当皇权集中,政局稳定,或出于帝王强烈的赞助意愿,秘府权限向上攀升,秘阁收藏之规模力度亦随势攀升,于是秘阁有效率地发挥其外搜、内藏之双向功能。 The “Palace Library” (Bige) established in the 1st year (988) of the Duangong reign period was to be the main institution in the palaces of the Northern and Southern Song dynasties for collecting paintings. Scholars today rarely touch on the Palace Library’s role as the main institution behind the palace collection of calligraphy and painting, yet in the course of Song Dynasty history the Palace Library moved location several times and there were incremental changes in the buildings it occupied within the palace, its standard fittings, its repositories and in the restrictions placed on its staff that influenced its authority as a creative institution for calligraphy and painting in the Song Dynasty palace. A close examination of the internal developments at the Palace Library reveals that in the early period of the Northern Song Dynasty the Palace Library served merely as a book repository and that its collections were arranged in a chaotic fashion. In the Southern Song Dynasty the Palace Library managed special collections of items, as the Books Section (Jingji-an) of the Department of the Palace Library (Bishusheng), and a set of regulations for managing the collection and conducting periodic inspections was instituted. In the Southern Song Dynasty the installations of the Palace Library were perfected and the institution made the shift from being a mere collecting body to an organization responsible for also authenticating items in the collection and it came to assume all of the six tasks that had been originally the responsibility of the Painting Academy of the palace, thereby increasing the body’s number of positions, power and responsibilities at the expense of the master painters. These changes in the power and position of the Palace Library in the course of the Song Dynasty were the result of specific historical circumstances and were dependent on a supportive external environment. In the Northern Song period, the Palace Library had a low position but with the Southern Song Dynasty it was greatly elevated and was prominent in the imperial administrative system centred on the Department of the Palace Library. In the Southern Song Dynasty the Palace Library upheld and served as a vehicle for imperial power and the encouragement of the collection of calligraphy and painting targeted the groups of officials at court while the system of authentication was absorbed within the massive state bureaucracy. With the concentration of imperial power and the stabilization of the political situation, the power and authority of the Palace Library also rose, as a circle of the bureaucracy under the direct ardent patronage of the emperors. The scope and powers of the collecting role of the Palace Library also increased and so the library was effective as a dual organization empowered to collect works from outside the palace and manage the palace’s collection.

AB - 两宋宫廷储藏书画之主要机构为肇建于端拱元年 (988年) 之“秘阁”。学界目前对两宋秘阁之宫廷书画鉴藏机构鲜少涉及;然而在两宋历史的渐变进程中,秘阁院址几经迁徙,其省舍建筑、规模设备、储藏库房、职事权限呈现阶段性之异动,凡此异动,微妙波及两宋宫廷书画创作机构之权力。审谛秘阁内部的发展变化,北宋初期的秘阁仅为书库,秘阁藏品搁置混乱;南宋秘阁以秘书省“经籍案”专掌藏品储藏管理,制订出一套科学管理方案及定期查验制度。南宋秘阁设备完善,功能亦由储藏至鉴藏,并进而取代、接掌了原归画院行使的六项职权,这指涉南宋秘府职事增多,被赋予之权限相对扩大,画师职事则反遭萎缩。以上变化有特定的历史背景暨赖以支撑之外在条件,承载并推动了两宋秘阁职制地位之流变。北宋初期秘阁地位低落,然而一入南宋,华阁飞升,秘书省于皇朝政治体系中岿然杰出。南宋秘阁仰载皇权,书画藏品开放对象转为朝中官僚集团,鉴藏制度吸纳入庞大的官僚机构运作体系。作为官制的一环,当皇权集中,政局稳定,或出于帝王强烈的赞助意愿,秘府权限向上攀升,秘阁收藏之规模力度亦随势攀升,于是秘阁有效率地发挥其外搜、内藏之双向功能。 The “Palace Library” (Bige) established in the 1st year (988) of the Duangong reign period was to be the main institution in the palaces of the Northern and Southern Song dynasties for collecting paintings. Scholars today rarely touch on the Palace Library’s role as the main institution behind the palace collection of calligraphy and painting, yet in the course of Song Dynasty history the Palace Library moved location several times and there were incremental changes in the buildings it occupied within the palace, its standard fittings, its repositories and in the restrictions placed on its staff that influenced its authority as a creative institution for calligraphy and painting in the Song Dynasty palace. A close examination of the internal developments at the Palace Library reveals that in the early period of the Northern Song Dynasty the Palace Library served merely as a book repository and that its collections were arranged in a chaotic fashion. In the Southern Song Dynasty the Palace Library managed special collections of items, as the Books Section (Jingji-an) of the Department of the Palace Library (Bishusheng), and a set of regulations for managing the collection and conducting periodic inspections was instituted. In the Southern Song Dynasty the installations of the Palace Library were perfected and the institution made the shift from being a mere collecting body to an organization responsible for also authenticating items in the collection and it came to assume all of the six tasks that had been originally the responsibility of the Painting Academy of the palace, thereby increasing the body’s number of positions, power and responsibilities at the expense of the master painters. These changes in the power and position of the Palace Library in the course of the Song Dynasty were the result of specific historical circumstances and were dependent on a supportive external environment. In the Northern Song period, the Palace Library had a low position but with the Southern Song Dynasty it was greatly elevated and was prominent in the imperial administrative system centred on the Department of the Palace Library. In the Southern Song Dynasty the Palace Library upheld and served as a vehicle for imperial power and the encouragement of the collection of calligraphy and painting targeted the groups of officials at court while the system of authentication was absorbed within the massive state bureaucracy. With the concentration of imperial power and the stabilization of the political situation, the power and authority of the Palace Library also rose, as a circle of the bureaucracy under the direct ardent patronage of the emperors. The scope and powers of the collecting role of the Palace Library also increased and so the library was effective as a dual organization empowered to collect works from outside the palace and manage the palace’s collection.

KW - 秘府

KW - 秘阁

KW - 秘书省

KW - 尚书省

KW - 宫廷书画鉴藏

KW - Bifu

KW - Bige

KW - Bishusheng

KW - the authentication and collection of calligraphy and painting by the palace

U2 - 10.16319/j.cnki.0452-7402.2005.01.002

DO - 10.16319/j.cnki.0452-7402.2005.01.002

M3 - Journal Article (refereed)

VL - 2005

SP - 12

EP - 40

JO - 故宫博物院院刊 = Palace Museum Journal

JF - 故宫博物院院刊 = Palace Museum Journal

SN - 0452-7402

IS - 1

ER -