A survey of multimodal information fusion for smart healthcare : Mapping the journey from data to wisdom

Thanveer SHAIK*, Xiaohui TAO, Lin LI, Haoran XIE, Juan D. VELÁSQUEZ

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Multimodal medical data fusion has emerged as a transformative approach in smart healthcare, enabling a comprehensive understanding of patient health and personalized treatment plans. In this paper, a journey from data to information to knowledge to wisdom (DIKW) is explored through multimodal fusion for smart healthcare. We present a comprehensive review of multimodal medical data fusion focused on the integration of various data modalities. The review explores different approaches such as feature selection, rule-based systems, machine learning, deep learning, and natural language processing, for fusing and analyzing multimodal data. This paper also highlights the challenges associated with multimodal fusion in healthcare. By synthesizing the reviewed frameworks and theories, it proposes a generic framework for multimodal medical data fusion that aligns with the DIKW model. Moreover, it discusses future directions related to the four pillars of healthcare: Predictive, Preventive, Personalized, and Participatory approaches. The components of the comprehensive survey presented in this paper form the foundation for more successful implementation of multimodal fusion in smart healthcare. Our findings can guide researchers and practitioners in leveraging the power of multimodal fusion with the state-of-the-art approaches to revolutionize healthcare and improve patient outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102040
JournalInformation Fusion
Early online date28 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support ANID Fondecyt 1231122 , PIA/PUENTE AFB220003 , Chile.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s)

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s)


  • DIKW
  • Data fusion
  • Multimodality
  • Smart healthcare
  • p4 medicine


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