Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for hemodialysis patients with comorbid depression and to identify which other aspects, including anxiety and quality of life, can be improved through intervention. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed using multiple databases (PubMed, EMBase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL). The inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT conducted in hemodialysis patients with depression. Study reporting quality was assessed with the Cochrane tool and Review Manager version 5.3 was used to obtain pooled results. Results: Eight RCTs, with a total sample size of 540 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with control groups, the CBT groups had statistically significant improvements in depression (standardized mean differences [SMD] = −0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] (−0.94 to −0.42), P < .001), anxiety (SMD = −0.99, 95%CI (−1.99 to 0.00), P = .05) and quality of life (SMD = 0.34, 95%CI (0.13 to 0.54), P < .001). Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis showed that CBT could have an effective role in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as improving quality of life in hemodialysis patients with comorbid depression.