This paper provided a systematic review of previous Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) studies on language learning. A total of 88 articles were selected and analyzed from five perspectives: their ways of integrating AR or VR tools in language learning; main users of AR and VR technologies; major research findings; why AR and VR tools are effective in promoting language learning; and the implications. It was found that (1) immersing learners into virtual worlds is the main approach to language learning in AR and VR studies; (2) university students were the main users of AR/VR technologies; (3) the major research findings concerning the benefits of AR and VR included improvement of students’ learning outcomes, enhancement of motivation, and positive perceptions towards using AR and VR; (4) AR and VR tools promoted language learning through providing immersive learning experience, enhancing motivation, creating interaction, and reducing learning anxiety; and (5) implications identified from previous research include the need of providing training for teachers, enlarging sample sizes, and exploring learner factors such as learner engagement and satisfaction.
Bibliographical noteThis research is supported by the One-off Special Fund from Central and Faculty Fund in Support of Research from 2019/20 to 2021/22 (MIT02/19-20), Research Cluster Fund (RG 78/2019-2020R), Dean’s Research Fund 2019/20 (IDS-2 2020), Knowledge Transfer Fund (KT-2020-2021-0016) and the FHM Special Project of The Education University of Hong Kong, and the Lam Woo Research Fund (LWI20011) of Lingnan University, Hong Kong.
- augmented reality
- virtual reality
- language learning
- computer-assisted language learning