Spherical video-based virtual reality (SVVR) is a form of virtual reality that employs 360-degree videos to immerse learners in virtual environments. As SVVR can simulate realistic experiences, the current trend of language education is towards more use of it. To examine its current status, this study systematically reviewed 31 articles on SVVR-enhanced language education from the perspectives of Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation (i.e. the ADDIE model). The results indicate that the main affordances of SVVR include providing learners with authentic and immersive learning experiences, enabling content visualization, and giving learners a sense of freshness. The most popular pedagogical mode is to immerse and situate students in scenes, landscapes, city views, and real-life scenarios in SVVR. The associated language learning activities can be writing, speaking, and listening practices, as well as grammar, vocabulary, and culture learning. Scaffolding strategies such as providing guided questions for students’ exploration and engagement in SVVR and conducting collaborative or problem-based learning, as evidenced by several studies, seem effective. The effects of SVVR-enhanced language education are mainly evaluated through tests, questionnaires, interviews, and reflection papers. Based on the results, we propose future research and development directions for researchers and practitioners interested in SVVR-enhanced language education.
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- Special video-based virtual reality
- 360-degree videos
- virtual reality
- language learning
- language education
- the ADDIE model
- Spherical video-based virtual reality