A tale of three cities : review of the development of ICT in school education between Hong Kong, Macau and Singapore: 三城記:香港、澳門及星加坡 學校資訊科技教育發展的檢討

Chun Wai FAN, 賀國強

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Hong Kong, Macau and Singapore are the top five cities/countries with the cheapest fixed line broadband as proportion of monthly income. It is interesting to know that several decades ago, they were still among the list of developing nations, struggling for survival and relief. However, they are climbing to the top in ICT development now. Aims: This paper reviews the ICT development in school education of Hong Kong, Macau and Singapore with respect to their social, geographical, and economic backgrounds. Johannessen's three orders of benchmarks are proposed for the comparison. Method: Literature reviews on recent reports, research articles, books and internet data were used to understand the current situation of the ICT development in education for Hong Kong, Macau and Singapore. Conclusion: It is clear that these three cities' determination and relative amount that had invested in the development of ICT in education were enormous when compared with the US investment. Among these three cities, the investment of Singapore has been much larger than the other two. Singapore's apparent leading in the development of ICT in education is not an accident, especially for the first benchmarks. For the second and third benchmarks, Macau lags behind Hong Kong and Singapore, this is partially due to Macau education system is comparatively much liberal than the other two.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-82
Number of pages13
JournalNew Horizons in Education
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2012


Cite this