Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share some common clinical features and are both characterized by aberrant resting-state functional connectivity (FC). However, little is known about the common and specific aberrant features of the dynamic FC patterns in these two disorders. In this study, we explored the differences in dynamic FC among schizophrenia patients (n = 66), type I bipolar disorder patients (n = 53), and healthy controls (n = 66), by comparing temporal variabilities of FC patterns involved in specific brain regions and large-scale brain networks. Compared with healthy controls, both patient groups showed significantly increased regional FC variabilities in subcortical areas including the thalamus and basal ganglia, as well as increased inter-network FC variability between the thalamus and sensorimotor areas. Specifically, more widespread changes were found in the schizophrenia group, involving increased FC variabilities in sensorimotor, visual, attention, limbic and subcortical areas at both regional and network levels, as well as decreased regional FC variabilities in the default-mode areas. The observed alterations shared by schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may help to explain their overlapped clinical features; meanwhile, the schizophrenia-specific abnormalities in a wider range may support that schizophrenia is associated with more severe functional brain deficits than bipolar disorder. Together, these findings highlight the potentials of using dynamic FC as an objective biomarker for the monitoring and diagnosis of either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Zhong He (Department of Radiology of Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University) for his assistance in rs-fMRI data acquisition. This manuscript has been released as a pre-print at bioRxiv (69).
The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00422/full#supplementary-material
This research was funded by the China Precision Medicine Initiative (grant number 2016YFC0906300) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant numbers 81561168021, 81671335, 81701325).
© Copyright © 2020 Long, Liu, Chan, Wu, Xue, Pan, Chen, Huang, Li and Pu.
- basal ganglia
- bipolar disorder
- dynamic functional connectivity