This paper presents an application case study of an economic model predictive control (EMPC) method for optimizing the building demand and energy cost under the time-of-use price policy. The control strategy is comprised of an economic objective function that accounts for the combination of energy and demand costs with a time-of-use rate structure, a dynamic thermal process and power model of the building thermal mass dynamics, and a set of constraints to ensure the building is operated properly. The optimization is a min–max optimization problem and is converted to a linear program. The EMPC method is implemented in a commercial office building located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. An internet-based control architecture is developed to carry out tests with the EMPC controller at a remote location. The test results show that the EMPC strategy is capable of shifting the peak demand to off-peak hours and reducing energy costs compared to a baseline case for the building.
- Economic model predictive control
- Field tests