Assessing the inequalities in demand for family planning satisfied in Ghana : evidence from the 1993–2014 Demographic and Health Surveys

Simon Agongo AZURE, Eugene BUDU, Joshua OKYERE*, Felix MENSAH, Bright Opoku AHINKORAH, Abdul-aziz SEIDU, Edward Kwabena AMEYAW

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review


Family planning is essential in promoting the well-being of women and their families and communities and ensuring quality of care in contraceptive use. This study sought to assess the trend and inequalities in the demand for family planning satisfied (DFPS) in Ghana from 1993 to 2014.

The World Health Organization's Health Equity Assessment Toolkit was employed to analyse the data. We disaggregated DFPS by five equity stratifiers: age, economic status, education, residence and region. Inequality was measured using difference (D), population attributable risk (PAR), ratio (R) and population attributable fraction (PAF).

The study showed an increment in DFPS from 17.8% to 38.7% between 1993 and 2014. With respect to age, we noted substantial inequality in 2003 (D=21.9 [95% confidence interval {CI} 15.2 to 28.7]), 1993 (D=4.8 [95% CI −1.8 to 11.4]) and 2014 (D=15 [95% CI 3 to 26.9]). The greatest economic inequality occurred in 1993 (PAF=69.7 [95% CI 50.8 to 88.6]; D=20.1 [95% CI 14.8 to 25.4]). Regarding education, significant inequality existed in 1993 (PAF=112 [95% CI 100.8 to 123.2]; D=29.7 [95% CI 21.9 to 37.4]). Ashanti and the Upper West regions reported significant inequalities (PAF=55.6 [95% CI 33.1 to 78.2]; D=16.1 [95% CI 8.9 to 23.3]).

There are age-, education-, wealth-, residence- and region-related inequalities with respect to DFPS. Policymakers will have to prioritize the needs of women with no formal or low educational attainment in order to improve DFPS coverage. Special attention needs to be given to adolescent girls since they suffer greater inequalities than adult women.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-67
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Health
Issue number1
Early online date25 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

We acknowledge the MEASURE DHS Program for making the Ghana DHS survey data available to us.

© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


  • demand for family planning
  • Ghana
  • inequalities
  • satisfied


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