Automotive window seal design considering external aerodynamic load and surrogate constraint modeling


*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Installed between metallic DIW (Door in White) panel and nonmetallic door glass, automotive window seals has great influence on customers’ perception of NVH (Noise-Vibration-Harshness) performance. Recently, aerodynamic effect on ride comfort attracts increasing research interest. The external load causes unsteady pressure on glass, which is finally transferred to window seals and leads to complicated vibration and increases interior noise level. However, non-linearities of hyper-elastic material, rubber-glass contact and large deformation behavior make the construction of window seals constraint model much more difficult, thus impeding further analysis and optimization. A new window seal design method is proposed featuring in considering aerodynamics-induced load and nonlinear constraint. Firstly, by SST − k − ε (Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model, external flow field of full-scale automotive is established by solving three-dimensional, steady and uncompressible Navier-Stokes equation. With re-exploited mapping algorithm, the overall aerodynamic pressure is extracted and matched to local window as external loads for seals, thus taking into account high speed fluid-structure interaction. Secondly, based on functional equivalence and mathematical fitting, new surrogate constraint model is presented. The unitedseal CLD (Compression Load Deflection) curve is synthesized after translations and transformations from two semi-seal CLD experimental measurements of inner and outer lips. It is then fit to complex exponential function, making seal constraint equivalent to a surrogate elastic constraint with variable stiffness. Experiment is performed to verify the constraint surrogation effectiveness. Finally, case study of window seal design under high speed is investigated. After seal optimization based on the new method, windows seals’ maximal displacements have decreased. The improved seal-glass fitting status shows better NVH quality of window seal in high-speed condition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)853-864
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Automotive Technology
Issue number5
Early online date30 Jun 2016
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

This research is supported by the NSFC-China (National Natural Science Foundation of China) Project (No. 51275359), Project of Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures project (No. 2012005) and Project of Tongji-Qingpu Co-Research Platform (No. 201305). Director Dr. DAI Yuankan and Research Manager XIA Guoyong of Sealing System CO., LTD. have made contribution.


  • Aerodynamic load
  • Automotive window seal
  • Numerical analysis
  • Surrogate constraint modeling


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