The Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) is a widely used measure of a core facet of the positive body image construct. However, extant research concerning measurement invariance of the BAS-2 across a large number of nations remains limited. Here, we utilised the Body Image in Nature (BINS) dataset – with data collected between 2020 and 2022 – to assess measurement invariance of the BAS-2 across 65 nations, 40 languages, gender identities, and age groups. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis indicated that full scalar invariance was upheld across all nations, languages, gender identities, and age groups, suggesting that the unidimensional BAS-2 model has widespread applicability. There were large differences across nations and languages in latent body appreciation, while differences across gender identities and age groups were negligible-to-small. Additionally, greater body appreciation was significantly associated with higher life satisfaction, being single (versus being married or in a committed relationship), and greater rurality (versus urbanicity). Across a subset of nations where nation-level data were available, greater body appreciation was also significantly associated with greater cultural distance from the United States and greater relative income inequality. These findings suggest that the BAS-2 likely captures a near-universal conceptualisation of the body appreciation construct, which should facilitate further cross-cultural research.
CRediT authorship contribution statement:
Viren Swami: Conceptualisation, Methodology, Validation, Resources, Writing – original draft, Project administration. Ulrich S. Tran: Conceptualisation, Methodology, Formal analysis, Data curation, Writing – original draft; Stefan Stieger: Conceptualization; Methodology; Validation; Writing – review & editing; Martin Voracek: Conceptualization, Methodology, Validation, Writing – review & editing. All Remaining Authors: Data curation; Investigation; Writing – review & editing.
Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
- Body appreciation
- Body appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2)
- Measurement invariance
- Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA)
- Structural analysis