Body appreciation around the world: Measurement invariance of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) across 65 nations, 40 languages, gender identities, and age

Viren SWAMI*, Ulrich S. TRAN, Stefan STIEGER, Toivo AAVIK, Hamed Abdollahpour RANJBAR, Sulaiman Olanrewaju ADEBAYO, Reza AFHAMI, Oli AHMED, Annie AIMÉ, Marwan AKEL, Hussam AL HALBUSI, George ALEXIAS, Khawla F. ALI, Nursel ALP-DAL, Anas B. ALSALHANI, Sara ÁLVARES-SOLAS, Ana Carolina AMARAL, Sonny ANDRIANTO, Trefor ASPDEN, Marios ARGYRIDESJohn Jamir ARUTA, Stephen ATKIN, Olusola AYANDELE, Migle BACEVICIENE, Radvan BAHBOUH, Andrea BALLESIO, David BARRON, Ashleigh BELLARD, Sóley Sesselja BENDER, Kerime Derya BEYDAĞ, Gorana BIROVLJEVIĆ, Marie-Ève BLACKBURN, Teresita BORJA-ALVAREZ, Joanna BOROWIEC, Miroslava BOZOGÁŇOVÁ, Solfrid BRATLAND-SANDA, Matthew H.E.M. BROWNING, Anna BRYTEK-MATERA, Marina BURAKOVA, Yeliz ÇAKIR-KOÇAK, Pablo CAMACHO, Vittorio Emanuele CAMILLERI, Valentina CAZZATO, Silvia CEREA, Apitchaya CHAIWUTIKORNWANICH, Trawin CHALEERAKTRAKOON, Tim CHAMBERS, Qing-Wei CHEN, Xin CHEN, Chin-Lung CHIEN, Phatthanakit CHOBTHAMKIT, Bovornpot CHOOMPUNUCH, Emilio J. COMPTE, Jennifer CORRIGAN, Getrude COSMAS, Richard G. COWDEN, Kamila CZEPCZOR-BERNAT, Marcin CZUB, Wanderson Roberto DA SILVA, Mahboubeh DADFAR, Simon E. DALLEY, Lionel DANY, Jesus Alfonso DATU, Pedro Henrique BERBERT DE CARVALHO, Gabriel Lins COELHO, Avila Odia DE JESUS, Sonia Harzallah DEBBABI, Sandesh DHAKAL, Francesca DI BERNARDO, Donka D. DIMITROVA, Jacinthe DION, Barnaby DIXSON, Stacey M. DONOFRIO, Marius DRYSCH, Hongfei DU, Angel M. DZHAMBOV, Claire EL-JOR, Violeta ENEA, Mehmet ESKIN, Farinaz FARBOD, Lorleen FARRUGIA, Leonie FIAN, Maryanne L. FISHER, Michał FOLWARCZNY, David A. FREDERICK, Matthew FULLER-TYSZKIEWICZ, Adrian FURNHAM, Antonio Alías GARCÍA, Shulamit GELLER, Marta GHISI, Alireza GHORBANI, Maria Angeles MARTINEZ, Sarah GRADIDGE, Sylvie GRAF, Caterina GRANO, Gyöngyvér GYENE, Souheil HALLIT, Motasem HAMDAN, Jonathan E. HANDELZALTS, Paul H.P. HANEL, Steven R. HAWKS, Issa HEKMATI, Mai HELMY, Tetiana HILL, Farah HINA, Geraldine HOLENWEGER, Martina HŘEBÍČKOVÁ, Olasupo Augustine IJABADENIYI, Asma IMAM, Başak İNCE, Natalia IRRAZABAL, Rasa JANKAUSKIENE, Ding-Yu JIANG, Micaela JIMÉNEZ-BORJA, Verónica JIMÉNEZ-BORJA, Evan M. JOHNSON, Veljko JOVANOVIĆ, Marija JOVIĆ, Marko JOVIĆ, Alessandra Costa JUNQUEIRA, Lisa-Marie KAHLE, Adam KANTANISTA, Ahmet KARAKIRAZ, Ayşe Nur KARKIN, Erich KASTEN, Salam KHATIB, Nuannut KHIEOWAN, Patricia Joseph KIMONG, Litza KIROPOULOS, Joshua KNITTEL, Neena KOHLI, Mirjam KOPRIVNIK, Aituar KOSPAKOV, Magdalena KRÓL-ZIELIŃSKA, Isabel KRUG, Garry KUAN, Yee Cheng KUEH, Omar KUJAN, Miljana KUKIĆ, Sanjay KUMAR, Vipul KUMAR, Nishtha LAMBA, Mary Anne LAURI, Maria Fernanda LAUS, Liza April LEBLANC, Hyejoo J. LEE, Małgorzata LIPOWSKA, Mariusz LIPOWSKI, Caterina LOMBARDO, Andrea LUKÁCS, Christophe MAÏANO, Sadia MALIK, Mandar MANJARY, Lidia Márquez BALDÓ, Martha MARTINEZ-BANFI, Karlijn MASSAR, Camila MATERA, Olivia MCANIRLIN, Moisés Roberto MEBARAK, Anwar MECHRI, Juliana Fernandes MEIRELES, Norbert MESKO, Jacqueline MILLS, Maya MIYAIRI, Ritu MODI, Adriana MODRZEJEWSKA, Justyna MODRZEJEWSKA, Kate E. MULGREW, Taryn A. MYERS, Hikari NAMATAME, Mohammad Zakaria NASSANI, Amanda NERINI, Félix NETO, Joana NETO, Angela Noguiera NEVES, Siu-Kuen NG, Devi NITHIYA, Jiaqing O, Sahar OBEID, Camila ODA-MONTECINOS, Peter Olamakinde OLAPEGBA, Tosin Tunrayo OLONISAKIN, Salma Samir OMAR, Brynja ÖRLYGSDÓTTIR, Emrah ÖZSOY, Tobias OTTERBRING, Sabine PAHL, Maria Serena PANASITI, Yonguk PARK, Muhammad Mainuddin PATWARY, Tatiana PETHÖ, Nadezhda PETROVA, Jakob PIETSCHNIG, Sadaf POURMAHMOUD, Vishnunarayan Girishan PRABHU, Vita POŠTUVAN, Pavol PROKOP, Virginia L. RAMSEYER WINTER, Magdalena RAZMUS, Taotao RU, Mirjana RUPAR, Reza N. SAHLAN, Mohammad Salah HASSAN, Anđela ŠALOV, Saphal SAPKOTA, Jacob Owusu SARFO, Yoko SAWAMIYA, Katrin SCHAEFER, Michael SCHULTE-MECKLENBECK, Veya SEEKIS, Kerim SELVI, Mehdi SHARIFI, Anita SHRIVASTAVA, Rumana Ferdousi SIDDIQUE, Valdimar SIGURDSSON, Vineta SILKANE, Ana ŠIMUNIĆ, Govind SINGH, Alena SLEZÁČKOVÁ, Christine SUNDGOT-BORGEN, Gill TEN HOOR, Passagorn TEVICHAPONG, Arun TIPANDJAN, Jennifer TODD, Constantinos TOGAS, Fernando TONINI, Juan Camilo TOVAR-CASTRO, Lise Katrine TRANGSRUD, Pankaj TRIPATHI, Otilia TUDOREL, Tracy L. TYLKA, Anar UYZBAYEVA, Zahir VALLY, Edmunds VANAGS, Luis Diego VEGA, Aitor VICENTE-ARRUEBARRENA, Jose VIDAL-MOLLÓN, Roosevelt VILAR, Hyxia VILLEGAS, Mona VINTILĂ, Christoph WALLNER, Mathew P. WHITE, Simon WHITEBRIDGE, Sonja WINDHAGER, Kah Yan WONG, Eric Kenson YAU, Yuko YAMAMIYA, Victoria Wai YEUNG, Marcelo Callegari ZANETTI, Magdalena ZAWISZA, Nadine ZEENI, Martina ZVARÍKOVÁ, Martin VORACEK

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
42 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) is a widely used measure of a core facet of the positive body image construct. However, extant research concerning measurement invariance of the BAS-2 across a large number of nations remains limited. Here, we utilised the Body Image in Nature (BINS) dataset – with data collected between 2020 and 2022 – to assess measurement invariance of the BAS-2 across 65 nations, 40 languages, gender identities, and age groups. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis indicated that full scalar invariance was upheld across all nations, languages, gender identities, and age groups, suggesting that the unidimensional BAS-2 model has widespread applicability. There were large differences across nations and languages in latent body appreciation, while differences across gender identities and age groups were negligible-to-small. Additionally, greater body appreciation was significantly associated with higher life satisfaction, being single (versus being married or in a committed relationship), and greater rurality (versus urbanicity). Across a subset of nations where nation-level data were available, greater body appreciation was also significantly associated with greater cultural distance from the United States and greater relative income inequality. These findings suggest that the BAS-2 likely captures a near-universal conceptualisation of the body appreciation construct, which should facilitate further cross-cultural research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)449-466
Number of pages18
JournalBody Image
Volume46
Early online date13 Aug 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

CRediT authorship contribution statement:
Viren Swami: Conceptualisation, Methodology, Validation, Resources, Writing – original draft, Project administration. Ulrich S. Tran: Conceptualisation, Methodology, Formal analysis, Data curation, Writing – original draft; Stefan Stieger: Conceptualization; Methodology; Validation; Writing – review & editing; Martin Voracek: Conceptualization, Methodology, Validation, Writing – review & editing. All Remaining Authors: Data curation; Investigation; Writing – review & editing.

Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Body appreciation
  • Body appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2)
  • Measurement invariance
  • Cross-cultural
  • Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA)
  • Psychometrics
  • Structural analysis

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