This study aims to draw the solidarity patterns of welfare providers, i.e. state and non-state responders to COVID-19, and how their acts of solidarity reacted to the crisis and its impacts. These data are based upon secondary literature and semi-structured interviews with relevant stakeholders associated with each particular case. We suggest that interactional patterns of solidarity between institutionalized type and informal solidarity have changed twice during the crisis. First, a shortage of public resources in the early phases of the crisis encouraged informal solidarity to play a significant role, even conditioned, in providing social services to citizens. The relentless spread of COVID-19 has also resulted in the interactional patterns of both solidarities shifting in a more contingent manner, resulting in a collaborative partnership between state and non-state actors. The evolving phenomenon of changing welfare solidarity practices has been largely disregarded in the midst of a rapidly expanding literature that scrutinizes the transformation of social policy in the Global South during the crisis, while also highlighting the emergence of fragmented solidarity within the country.
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- solidarity ventures
- institutionalized solidarity
- informal solidarity
- social policy