China’s “1+X” Model: Remodeling Learning Procedure by Overplaying Certificate


Research output: Other Conference ContributionsPresentation


The State Council of the People’s Republic of China promulgated the Implementation Scheme on National Vocational Education Reform (hereinafter the Scheme) in February 2019, and proposed a “diploma + vocational certificate(s)” model that has been disseminated as the “1+X” model since then. This model is projected to encourage students studying in either application-oriented undergraduate universities or higher vocational colleges to earn one or more vocational certificates in addition to their diplomas amid the higher education learning procedures. According to statistics, more than 2,000 higher education institutes (including application-oriented undergraduate universities and higher vocational colleges) have participated in the “1+X” model, and more critically, it is anticipated that more institutes in the cohort are much likely to follow up (Huang, 2019). Along with the national proposal to establish “Top Higher Vocational Colleges” and to transform “Non-top and New-born Undergraduate Universities” into “Application-oriented Undergraduate Universities”, higher education institutes related have entered into an era of restructuring and redevelopment. Within the theoretical framework of pragmatism and utilitarianism, literature has well illustrated in what ways Chinese students and parents value higher education. More straightforwardly, under an increasing pressure of unemployment, a prevalent standpoint overgrowing among higher education learning pursuers and their parents is to be employed and employed favorably. Nonetheless, how do students savvy their learning meaningfulness under the influence of the “1+X” model, whether or not the “1+X” model can better off employment prospects of students involved, and what are the side effects of the campaign? There has been little evidence provided by literature to explain so far. This study therefore unveiled stories covered by this national policy from the perspective of learning procedures of students that come from application-oriented undergraduate universities, and pointed out that the effect of the “1+X” model on students’ employment prospects certainly makes a difference while students’ academic performance revealed by indicators such as Grade Point Average is usually neglected by employers, which simultaneously deteriorates the quality of teaching and learning. In addition, the “1+X” model has great potential to influence not only present university students but also high school students preparing to choose undergraduate programs, which further marginalizes programs of liberal arts.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019
EventThe IAFOR Conference for Higher Education Research / The Asian Conference on the Liberal Arts: Uncertain Futures - Lingnan University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Duration: 8 Nov 201910 Nov 2019


ConferenceThe IAFOR Conference for Higher Education Research / The Asian Conference on the Liberal Arts
Abbreviated titleCHER/ACLA 2019
Country/TerritoryHong Kong
CityHong Kong
Internet address


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