In this study, the authors used the theory of cooperation and competition to identify conditions that promote student team innovation. Through an investigation of student teams in Beijing, China, the authors found that teams with cooperative goals engaged in open-minded, constructive controversy, whereas teams with independent goals avoided open discussion. Teams with a high level of constructive controversy rated themselves as innovative and loyal.
Bibliographical noteThe authors would like to thank Helen Liu for her able assistance and the Hong Kong University Grants Council for its support of this study, grant
project No: TDG199/LC-3.