Covariates and Spatial Interpolation of HIV Screening in Mozambique: Insight from the 2015 AIDS Indicator Survey

Pascal AGBADI, Jerry John NUTOR*, Ernest DARKWAH, Henry Ofori DUAH, Precious Adade DUODU, Robert Kaba ALHASSAN, Kimberly BALTZELL

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


We examined the factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening and developed a HIV screening prevalence surface map using spatial interpolation techniques to identify the geographical areas with the highest and lowest rates of HIV screening in Mozambique. We analyzed the cross-sectional 2015 Mozambique AIDS Indicator Surveys with an analytic sample of 12,995 participants. Analyses were conducted on SPSS-21, STATA-14, and R freeware 3.5.3. We adjusted for the sample design and population weights. Results indicated that 52.5% of Mozambicans had undergone HIV screening. Mozambicans with these characteristics have a higher probability of undergoing HIV screening: females, those with a primary education or higher, urban dwellers, residents of wealthy households, having at least one lifetime sexual partner, and dwelling in these provinces—Niassa, Tete, Manica, Sofala, Inhambane, Gaza, Maputo Provincia, and Maputo Cidade. The spatial map revealed that the national and regional estimates mask sub-regional level estimates. Generally, zones with the highest HIV screening prevalence are found in southern provinces while the lowest prevalence was found in the northern provinces. The map further revealed intraregional differences in HIV screening estimates. We recommend that HIV screening be expanded, with equitable screening resource allocations that target more nuanced areas within provinces which have a low HIV screening prevalence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5630
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number16
Early online date5 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by University of California, San Francisco Population Health and Health Equity Scholar program, and School of Nursing.

Publisher Copyright:
© MDPI AG. All rights reserved.


  • HIV screening
  • Mozambique
  • Spatial interpolation
  • Sub-Saharan Africa


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