Dip-Coating Process Engineering and Performance Optimization for Three-State Electrochromic Devices

Lu WU, Dejiang YANG, Lixun FEI, Yue HUANG, Fang WU, Yiling SUN, Jiayuan SHI, Yong XIANG*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were modified onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) via dip-coating technique with different nanoparticle sizes, lifting speeds, precursor concentrations, and dipping numbers. Electrodeposition-based electrochromic device with reversible three-state optical transformation (transparent, mirror, and black) was fabricated subsequently by sandwiching a suitable amount of gel electrolyte between modified FTO electrode and flat FTO electrode. Correlation between dip-coating process engineering, morphological features of TiO2 thin films, i.e., thickness and roughness, as well as performance of electrochromic devices, i.e., optical contrast, switching time, and cycling stability, were investigated. The modified device exhibits high optical contrast of 57%, the short coloration/bleaching switching time of 6 and 20 s, and excellent cycling stability after 1500 cycles of only 27% decrement rate by adjusting dip-coating processes engineering. The results in this study will provide valuable guidance for rational design of the electrochromic device with satisfactory performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number390
Number of pages15
JournalNanoscale Research Letters
Early online date6 Jun 2017
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017, The Author(s).


  • Dip-coating process engineering
  • Electrochromism
  • Electrodeposition
  • Optical performance
  • Titanium dioxide nanoparticle


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