Effects of captions and English proficiency on learning effectiveness, motivation and attitude in augmented-reality-enhanced theme-based contextualized EFL learning

Ming-Puu CHEN, Li-Chun WANG, Di ZOU*, Shu-Yuan LIN, Haoran XIE, Chin-Chung TSAI

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

67 Citations (Scopus)


Augmented reality (AR) deepens learning interactions by imposing digital information on top of physical settings. This study implemented an AR-enhanced theme-based contextualized learning and aimed to examine the effects of captions (non-caption, English caption and Chinese caption) and English proficiency (less proficient and proficient) on junior high school students’ English learning effectiveness, motivation and attitude. Six classes of ninth-graders voluntarily participated in the experimental learning sessions using tablets. A factorial design was employed, and the participants’ learning performance, motivation and attitude were evaluated. The results indicated that captions did not affect knowledge comprehension, but English proficiency played a significant role in it. The effects of captions and English proficiency on knowledge application indicated that English captions placed high cognitive load and hindered less proficient learners’ knowledge application, but proficient learners performed equally under different caption conditions. Generally, students demonstrated positive motivation toward learning from the AR-enhanced contextualized learning. The proficient learners were more motivated in terms of self-efficacy, proactive learning and learning value. All learners expressed positive attitude toward learning, among whom, those who learned without captions showed greater degrees of confidence and preferences, and the proficient learners showed greater degrees of confidence, preferences, learning process and learning strategy but lower degrees of anxiety.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-411
Number of pages31
JournalComputer Assisted Language Learning
Issue number3
Early online date8 Jan 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

This work was financially supported by the “Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences” of National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU) from The Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, Republic of China under the grant MOST 106-2511-S-003 -018-MY3. It was also partially supported by the Standing Committee on Language Education and Research (EDB(LE)/P&R/EL/175/2), the Education Bureau of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and the Internal Research Grant (RG93/2018-2019R, RG1/2019-2020R), The Education University of Hong Kong.


  • Augmented reality
  • caption
  • contextualized learning
  • e-learning
  • motivation


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