Effects of intensive EFL immersion programmes on willingness to communicate


*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Few studies have examined willingness to communicate (WtC) changes resulting from short-term intensive immersion programmes. This study investigated the antecedents to and changes in WtC during one such programme held at a Macau university. The programme required students to reside on campus and participate in extensive task-based communicative language classes and fluency activities with a range of interlocutors from different backgrounds. Pre- and post-programme questionnaire data were collected, and regression analyses indicated perceived competence as the largest predictor for WtC. Repeated measure t-tests indicated significant improvement in WtC and the underlying components of perceived competence, language use anxiety and motivation for language learning as a result of the programme. The results support previous studies on WtC predictors, and suggest short-term intensive English programmes held within the home country of students can be as beneficial to WtC as longer term immersion or study abroad programmes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)442-453
Number of pages12
JournalLanguage Learning Journal
Issue number4
Early online date17 Jan 2018
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018, © 2018 Association for Language Learning.


  • affective factors
  • intensive language immersion
  • second language learning
  • Willingness to communicate


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