Elastic Resource Allocation against Imbalanced Transaction Assignments in Sharding-based Permissioned Blockchains

Huawei HUANG, Zhengyu YUE, Xiaowen PENG, Liuding HE, Wuhui CHEN, Hong-ning DAI, Zibin ZHENG, Song GUO

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


This paper studies the PBFT-based sharded permissioned blockchain, which executes in either a local datacenter or a rented cloud platform. In such permissioned blockchain, the transaction (TX) assignment strategy could be malicious such that the network shards may possibly receive imbalanced transactions or even bursty-TX injection attacks. An imbalanced transaction assignment brings serious threats to the stability of the sharded blockchain. A stable sharded blockchain can ensure that each shard processes the arrived transactions timely. Since the system stability is closely related to the blockchain throughput, how to maintain a stable sharded blockchain becomes a challenge. To depict the transaction processing in each network shard, we adopt the Lyapunov Optimization framework. Exploiting the drift-plus-penalty (DPP) technique, we then propose an adaptive resource-allocation algorithm, which can yield the near-optimal solution for each network shard while the shard queues can also be stably maintained. We also rigorously analyze the theoretical performance boundaries of the proposed DPP algorithm. We particularly evaluate two representative cases of bursty-TX injection attacks. The evaluation results show that the proposed DPP-based algorithm can well alleviate the imbalanced TX assignment, and simultaneously maintain high throughput while consuming fewer resources than other baselines.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2372-2385
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Issue number10
Early online date11 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

This Work is partially supported by National Key R&D Program of China (No.2020YFB1006005), National Natural Science Foundation of China (61902445), Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2019A1515011798), Guangzhou Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (202102020613), Pearl River Talent Recruitment Program (No. 2019QN01X130), CCF-Huawei Populus euphratica forest fund (CCF-HuaweiBC2021004), Hong Kong RGC Research Impact Fund (RIF) with the Project No. R5060-19, General Research Fund (GRF) with the Project No. 152221/19E, 152203/20E, and 152244/21E, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61872310), and Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission (R2020A045).

Publisher Copyright:

Publisher Copyright:
© 1990-2012 IEEE.


  • Bitcoin
  • Blockchains
  • Imbalanced Transaction Assignment
  • Numerical stability
  • Protocols
  • Queueing Theory
  • Scalability
  • Sharded Blockchain
  • Stability analysis
  • System Stability
  • Throughput
  • System stability
  • Sharded blockchain
  • Imbalanced transaction assignment
  • Queueing theory


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