Ethical preferences for influencing superiors: A 41-society study

David A. RALSTON, Carolyn P. EGRI, María Teresa DE LA GARZA CARRANZA, Prem RAMBURUTH, Jane TERPSTRA-TONG, Andre A. PEKERTI, Ilya GIRSON, Harald HERRIG, Marina DABIC, Moureen TANG, Paulina WAN, Philip HALLINGER, Ian PALMER, Detelin S. ELENKOV, Olivier FURRER, Vojko V. POTOCAN, Florian V. WANGENHEIM, Isabelle MAIGNAN, Pamela L. PERREWÉ, Ana Maria ROSSITomasz LENARTOWICZ, Donna E. LEDGERWOOD, Ruth C. MAY, Mark J. WEBER, Jorge C. JESUINO, Ping Ping FU, Irina NAOUMOVA, Tania CASADO, Liesl RIDDLE, Malika RICHARDS, Arif N. BUTT, Wade M. DANIS, Francisco B. CASTRO, Jaime RUIZ-GUTIÉRREZ, Laurie P. MILTON, Mahfooz A. ANSARI, David M. BROCK, Narasimhan SRINIVASAN, Arunas STARKUS, Tevfik DALGIC, Fidel LEÓN-DARDER, Hung Vu THANH, Yong Lin MOON, Ho Beng CHIA, Min Hsun CHRISTINE KUO, Mario MOLTENI, Maria KANGASNIEMI, Kamel MELLAHI, Alan WALLACE

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


With a 41-society sample of 9990 managers and professionals, we used hierarchical linear modeling to investigate the impact of both macro-level and micro-level predictors on subordinate influence ethics. While we found that both macro-level and micro-level predictors contributed to the model definition, we also found global agreement for a subordinate influence ethics hierarchy. Thus our findings provide evidence that developing a global model of subordinate ethics is possible, and should be based upon multiple criteria and multilevel variables.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1022-1045
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of International Business Studies
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2009


  • Cross-cultural management
  • Hierarchical linear modeling
  • Influence strategies
  • Social beliefs
  • Sociocultural and business ideology factors
  • Subordinate ethics


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