Examining the Factorial Validity of the Entrepreneurial Career Motives Scale: A Five-Nation Comparison

Emmanuel AFFUM-OSEI, Sharon G. GOTO, June Chun YEUNG, Rong WANG, Hodar LAM, Inusah ABDUL-NASIRU, Darius K.-S. CHAN*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This study validates Shane et al.’s Entrepreneurial Career Motives Scale across nations. A total sample of 948 undergraduate and postgraduate students from five nations (China = 229, Hong Kong = 213, Holland = 136, United States = 155, and Ghana = 215) were recruited to complete a survey designed to measure their entrepreneurial motives and other related constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor structure, namely, perceived recognition, sense of independence, pursuit of learning, and perceived roles. Results of the measurement invariance comparisons satisfactorily established measurement equivalence of the scale across nations, language versions, and genders. Both convergent and discriminant validities were established as the motives were associated with different constructs in an expected manner. Interestingly, different patterns in the entrepreneurial career motives emerged across nations. Overall, our findings provide support for the construct validity of the Entrepreneurial Motives Scale. Implications for practice, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)715-732
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Career Development
Issue number5
Early online date21 Jan 2020
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This project is funded by the Faculty of Social Science at the Chinese University of Hong Kong to Darius K.-S. Chan (Direct Grant for Research #: 4052145).

Publisher Copyright:
© Curators of the University of Missouri 2020.


  • across nations
  • entrepreneurial intentions
  • entrepreneurship
  • motives


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