南宋宮廷畫師外轉使臣之身分變換機制 : 以陳居中為例的個案研究

Translated title of the contribution: From Southern Song Court painter to ambassador : a case study of Chen Juzhong (ca. 1201-1232 )

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)Research

Abstract

1201年至1204年,南宋寧宗嘉泰年間,陳居中供職畫院待詔。這位身後成謎的番馬畫師僅在莊肅《畫繼補遺》、夏文彥《圖繪寶鑑》兩部早期畫史著錄留下稀若星鳳的簡短數語,引發元明至今無數的穿鏊附會。自晚明文嘉、張丑、戴茅維至淸人吳修,明淸鑒藏家勾稽起一套虛擬的陳居中印象,至淸人厲鶏《南宋院畫錄》“陳居中”條終於集結大成,然考察其所輯錄之十九幅陳居中畫跡,及所接觸認知的體系來源,卻混淆摻雜著大量依托、嫁名陳居中之傳稱作品,及臨摹倣造的僞濫膺品。明淸諸藏家所稱陳居中係宣和至高宗紹興院畫家,畫作署有高宗詩題或書跋,顯係連元人夏文彥《圖繪寶鑒》所著錄“陳居中,嘉泰年畫院待詔”均未翻閱的揣度臆測之誤。及至當代,Robert Rorex推論陳居中係北宋陷金之畫家;高木森、徐文琴、劉芳如引據《圖繪寶鑒》硏判陳居中係南宋寧宗院畫家;楊仁愷認其爲身處北方之金代畫家;余輝則徵引陶宗儀《輟耕錄》,揭示陳唐中於1207年入金。

事實上,南宋、元人對陳居中的官銜稱謂並不止於“畫院待詔”。南宋理宗嘉熙三年(1239),平陽人陳澗觀《文姬歸漢圖》並題跋 :“畫工原是漢忠臣”;元人柯九思 (1290-1343) 於陳居中《蠻王入貢圖》拖尾觀跋:“嘉泰待詔蕃馬長,丹丘博士官天章……畫史再拜陳明堂。”本文擬通過對陳居中出使這一個案的詳細考察,探討前人較少涉及的南宋宮廷畫師變換身份、轉遷官職的一種機制。

This essay proposes to study the case of Southern Sung Painter-in-Attendance at the court of Emperor Ning-tsung, Chen Chu-chung (active. 1201-1232 after) who had been an embassy to Chin. Besides Chen Chu-chung, many court painters authorized by a proper authority entered into alien territory together with diplomatic corps, such as Chen yao-ch'en, Han Jo-cho or Chao Po-su. Thus this article also intends to know why some well-trained court painters were attached to Sung embassy. How the court painters involved with sensitive diplomacy? Why they were transferred to other posts? What're their missions, functions and new identifying titles?

While encountering Sung-Chin adversarial confrontation, the Sung court painters were extraordinarily promoted as government officials, pretended auxiliary officials (ex: deputy envoy (fu-shih) or three ranks (san-chieh)). However, being national delegates, court painters acted as latent spies. Before receiving extraordinary commissions, they must endure serious of austere training for diplomatic ceremony, prevented from divulging state secrets. In their missions, they memorized the exact distances, remarked the fortifications and facilities of the Chin prefecture. Painters carefully gathered the alien military and political information, recorded by portraits, figure-and-horse paintings and landscape paintings. They described Jurchen emperors face characteristics, observed the technical details of horse trappings, and depicted the army dress. After their return, they offered paintings or Xing-cheng lu about what they had heard and seen in their journey.

Although painters submitted martial laws and etiquette disciplines, they got travel money, commodities and many advantages for rewarding successful work. The most important allowance is reappointed a higher bureaucratic rank, or made great progress in promoting official position.

From court painter to embassy, it's clear that espionage and intelligence statecraft surely existed in the Sung-Chin Diplomatic Practices. The tendency to fill up the embassy with court painters thus not only occurred as an incidental or trivial contingency, but also already constituted an extremely significant phenomenon. It's remarkable and epochmaking. The inevitable consequence impelled by disturbed and battle-scarred situations, especially in Southern Sung.
Original languageChinese (Traditional)
Pages (from-to)399-443
Number of pages44
Journal藝術史研究 = The study of art history
Volume5
Publication statusPublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes

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Cite this

@article{77aa8b0ede5f483ebad006d0c7dad468,
title = "南宋宮廷畫師外轉使臣之身分變換機制 : 以陳居中為例的個案研究",
abstract = "1201年至1204年,南宋寧宗嘉泰年間,陳居中供職畫院待詔。這位身後成謎的番馬畫師僅在莊肅《畫繼補遺》、夏文彥《圖繪寶鑑》兩部早期畫史著錄留下稀若星鳳的簡短數語,引發元明至今無數的穿鏊附會。自晚明文嘉、張丑、戴茅維至淸人吳修,明淸鑒藏家勾稽起一套虛擬的陳居中印象,至淸人厲鶏《南宋院畫錄》“陳居中”條終於集結大成,然考察其所輯錄之十九幅陳居中畫跡,及所接觸認知的體系來源,卻混淆摻雜著大量依托、嫁名陳居中之傳稱作品,及臨摹倣造的僞濫膺品。明淸諸藏家所稱陳居中係宣和至高宗紹興院畫家,畫作署有高宗詩題或書跋,顯係連元人夏文彥《圖繪寶鑒》所著錄“陳居中,嘉泰年畫院待詔”均未翻閱的揣度臆測之誤。及至當代,Robert Rorex推論陳居中係北宋陷金之畫家;高木森、徐文琴、劉芳如引據《圖繪寶鑒》硏判陳居中係南宋寧宗院畫家;楊仁愷認其爲身處北方之金代畫家;余輝則徵引陶宗儀《輟耕錄》,揭示陳唐中於1207年入金。事實上,南宋、元人對陳居中的官銜稱謂並不止於“畫院待詔”。南宋理宗嘉熙三年(1239),平陽人陳澗觀《文姬歸漢圖》並題跋 :“畫工原是漢忠臣”;元人柯九思 (1290-1343) 於陳居中《蠻王入貢圖》拖尾觀跋:“嘉泰待詔蕃馬長,丹丘博士官天章……畫史再拜陳明堂。”本文擬通過對陳居中出使這一個案的詳細考察,探討前人較少涉及的南宋宮廷畫師變換身份、轉遷官職的一種機制。This essay proposes to study the case of Southern Sung Painter-in-Attendance at the court of Emperor Ning-tsung, Chen Chu-chung (active. 1201-1232 after) who had been an embassy to Chin. Besides Chen Chu-chung, many court painters authorized by a proper authority entered into alien territory together with diplomatic corps, such as Chen yao-ch'en, Han Jo-cho or Chao Po-su. Thus this article also intends to know why some well-trained court painters were attached to Sung embassy. How the court painters involved with sensitive diplomacy? Why they were transferred to other posts? What're their missions, functions and new identifying titles?While encountering Sung-Chin adversarial confrontation, the Sung court painters were extraordinarily promoted as government officials, pretended auxiliary officials (ex: deputy envoy (fu-shih) or three ranks (san-chieh)). However, being national delegates, court painters acted as latent spies. Before receiving extraordinary commissions, they must endure serious of austere training for diplomatic ceremony, prevented from divulging state secrets. In their missions, they memorized the exact distances, remarked the fortifications and facilities of the Chin prefecture. Painters carefully gathered the alien military and political information, recorded by portraits, figure-and-horse paintings and landscape paintings. They described Jurchen emperors face characteristics, observed the technical details of horse trappings, and depicted the army dress. After their return, they offered paintings or Xing-cheng lu about what they had heard and seen in their journey.Although painters submitted martial laws and etiquette disciplines, they got travel money, commodities and many advantages for rewarding successful work. The most important allowance is reappointed a higher bureaucratic rank, or made great progress in promoting official position.From court painter to embassy, it's clear that espionage and intelligence statecraft surely existed in the Sung-Chin Diplomatic Practices. The tendency to fill up the embassy with court painters thus not only occurred as an incidental or trivial contingency, but also already constituted an extremely significant phenomenon. It's remarkable and epochmaking. The inevitable consequence impelled by disturbed and battle-scarred situations, especially in Southern Sung.",
author = "彭慧萍",
year = "2003",
language = "Chinese (Traditional)",
volume = "5",
pages = "399--443",
journal = "藝術史研究 = The study of art history",

}

南宋宮廷畫師外轉使臣之身分變換機制 : 以陳居中為例的個案研究. / 彭慧萍.

In: 藝術史研究 = The study of art history, Vol. 5, 2003, p. 399-443.

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)Research

TY - JOUR

T1 - 南宋宮廷畫師外轉使臣之身分變換機制 : 以陳居中為例的個案研究

AU - 彭慧萍, null

PY - 2003

Y1 - 2003

N2 - 1201年至1204年,南宋寧宗嘉泰年間,陳居中供職畫院待詔。這位身後成謎的番馬畫師僅在莊肅《畫繼補遺》、夏文彥《圖繪寶鑑》兩部早期畫史著錄留下稀若星鳳的簡短數語,引發元明至今無數的穿鏊附會。自晚明文嘉、張丑、戴茅維至淸人吳修,明淸鑒藏家勾稽起一套虛擬的陳居中印象,至淸人厲鶏《南宋院畫錄》“陳居中”條終於集結大成,然考察其所輯錄之十九幅陳居中畫跡,及所接觸認知的體系來源,卻混淆摻雜著大量依托、嫁名陳居中之傳稱作品,及臨摹倣造的僞濫膺品。明淸諸藏家所稱陳居中係宣和至高宗紹興院畫家,畫作署有高宗詩題或書跋,顯係連元人夏文彥《圖繪寶鑒》所著錄“陳居中,嘉泰年畫院待詔”均未翻閱的揣度臆測之誤。及至當代,Robert Rorex推論陳居中係北宋陷金之畫家;高木森、徐文琴、劉芳如引據《圖繪寶鑒》硏判陳居中係南宋寧宗院畫家;楊仁愷認其爲身處北方之金代畫家;余輝則徵引陶宗儀《輟耕錄》,揭示陳唐中於1207年入金。事實上,南宋、元人對陳居中的官銜稱謂並不止於“畫院待詔”。南宋理宗嘉熙三年(1239),平陽人陳澗觀《文姬歸漢圖》並題跋 :“畫工原是漢忠臣”;元人柯九思 (1290-1343) 於陳居中《蠻王入貢圖》拖尾觀跋:“嘉泰待詔蕃馬長,丹丘博士官天章……畫史再拜陳明堂。”本文擬通過對陳居中出使這一個案的詳細考察,探討前人較少涉及的南宋宮廷畫師變換身份、轉遷官職的一種機制。This essay proposes to study the case of Southern Sung Painter-in-Attendance at the court of Emperor Ning-tsung, Chen Chu-chung (active. 1201-1232 after) who had been an embassy to Chin. Besides Chen Chu-chung, many court painters authorized by a proper authority entered into alien territory together with diplomatic corps, such as Chen yao-ch'en, Han Jo-cho or Chao Po-su. Thus this article also intends to know why some well-trained court painters were attached to Sung embassy. How the court painters involved with sensitive diplomacy? Why they were transferred to other posts? What're their missions, functions and new identifying titles?While encountering Sung-Chin adversarial confrontation, the Sung court painters were extraordinarily promoted as government officials, pretended auxiliary officials (ex: deputy envoy (fu-shih) or three ranks (san-chieh)). However, being national delegates, court painters acted as latent spies. Before receiving extraordinary commissions, they must endure serious of austere training for diplomatic ceremony, prevented from divulging state secrets. In their missions, they memorized the exact distances, remarked the fortifications and facilities of the Chin prefecture. Painters carefully gathered the alien military and political information, recorded by portraits, figure-and-horse paintings and landscape paintings. They described Jurchen emperors face characteristics, observed the technical details of horse trappings, and depicted the army dress. After their return, they offered paintings or Xing-cheng lu about what they had heard and seen in their journey.Although painters submitted martial laws and etiquette disciplines, they got travel money, commodities and many advantages for rewarding successful work. The most important allowance is reappointed a higher bureaucratic rank, or made great progress in promoting official position.From court painter to embassy, it's clear that espionage and intelligence statecraft surely existed in the Sung-Chin Diplomatic Practices. The tendency to fill up the embassy with court painters thus not only occurred as an incidental or trivial contingency, but also already constituted an extremely significant phenomenon. It's remarkable and epochmaking. The inevitable consequence impelled by disturbed and battle-scarred situations, especially in Southern Sung.

AB - 1201年至1204年,南宋寧宗嘉泰年間,陳居中供職畫院待詔。這位身後成謎的番馬畫師僅在莊肅《畫繼補遺》、夏文彥《圖繪寶鑑》兩部早期畫史著錄留下稀若星鳳的簡短數語,引發元明至今無數的穿鏊附會。自晚明文嘉、張丑、戴茅維至淸人吳修,明淸鑒藏家勾稽起一套虛擬的陳居中印象,至淸人厲鶏《南宋院畫錄》“陳居中”條終於集結大成,然考察其所輯錄之十九幅陳居中畫跡,及所接觸認知的體系來源,卻混淆摻雜著大量依托、嫁名陳居中之傳稱作品,及臨摹倣造的僞濫膺品。明淸諸藏家所稱陳居中係宣和至高宗紹興院畫家,畫作署有高宗詩題或書跋,顯係連元人夏文彥《圖繪寶鑒》所著錄“陳居中,嘉泰年畫院待詔”均未翻閱的揣度臆測之誤。及至當代,Robert Rorex推論陳居中係北宋陷金之畫家;高木森、徐文琴、劉芳如引據《圖繪寶鑒》硏判陳居中係南宋寧宗院畫家;楊仁愷認其爲身處北方之金代畫家;余輝則徵引陶宗儀《輟耕錄》,揭示陳唐中於1207年入金。事實上,南宋、元人對陳居中的官銜稱謂並不止於“畫院待詔”。南宋理宗嘉熙三年(1239),平陽人陳澗觀《文姬歸漢圖》並題跋 :“畫工原是漢忠臣”;元人柯九思 (1290-1343) 於陳居中《蠻王入貢圖》拖尾觀跋:“嘉泰待詔蕃馬長,丹丘博士官天章……畫史再拜陳明堂。”本文擬通過對陳居中出使這一個案的詳細考察,探討前人較少涉及的南宋宮廷畫師變換身份、轉遷官職的一種機制。This essay proposes to study the case of Southern Sung Painter-in-Attendance at the court of Emperor Ning-tsung, Chen Chu-chung (active. 1201-1232 after) who had been an embassy to Chin. Besides Chen Chu-chung, many court painters authorized by a proper authority entered into alien territory together with diplomatic corps, such as Chen yao-ch'en, Han Jo-cho or Chao Po-su. Thus this article also intends to know why some well-trained court painters were attached to Sung embassy. How the court painters involved with sensitive diplomacy? Why they were transferred to other posts? What're their missions, functions and new identifying titles?While encountering Sung-Chin adversarial confrontation, the Sung court painters were extraordinarily promoted as government officials, pretended auxiliary officials (ex: deputy envoy (fu-shih) or three ranks (san-chieh)). However, being national delegates, court painters acted as latent spies. Before receiving extraordinary commissions, they must endure serious of austere training for diplomatic ceremony, prevented from divulging state secrets. In their missions, they memorized the exact distances, remarked the fortifications and facilities of the Chin prefecture. Painters carefully gathered the alien military and political information, recorded by portraits, figure-and-horse paintings and landscape paintings. They described Jurchen emperors face characteristics, observed the technical details of horse trappings, and depicted the army dress. After their return, they offered paintings or Xing-cheng lu about what they had heard and seen in their journey.Although painters submitted martial laws and etiquette disciplines, they got travel money, commodities and many advantages for rewarding successful work. The most important allowance is reappointed a higher bureaucratic rank, or made great progress in promoting official position.From court painter to embassy, it's clear that espionage and intelligence statecraft surely existed in the Sung-Chin Diplomatic Practices. The tendency to fill up the embassy with court painters thus not only occurred as an incidental or trivial contingency, but also already constituted an extremely significant phenomenon. It's remarkable and epochmaking. The inevitable consequence impelled by disturbed and battle-scarred situations, especially in Southern Sung.

M3 - Journal Article (refereed)

VL - 5

SP - 399

EP - 443

JO - 藝術史研究 = The study of art history

JF - 藝術史研究 = The study of art history

ER -