Global Trends in Curriculum Reform and Development

Brendan MITCHELL*, Clare Gordon BUNTIC

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review


Curriculum is generally understood to be that which defines what should be taught and learned in an education system, and the activities and experiences related to this. Curriculum reform and development is a trend globally as nations and states, and their education departments seek to deliver future focused curricula to meet the challenges and needs presented in the 21st century. This article explores some of the definitions of curriculum and the place of knowledge in a curriculum. This sets the basis for discussing curriculum reform and development globally. This is demonstrated in the global trend of curriculum change from curricula where knowledge is seen as specific subject facts, learned through transmission by the teacher to curricula where knowledge for application and problem solving is valued, acquired through a learning process of self-regulation and collaboration. This enables the authors to identify challenges and processes in curriculum reform or development projects. The article discusses curriculum reform in many countries to improve quality of schooling and the production of human capital, has resulted in a policy shift away from content-based curricula towards outcomes-based curricula, with an inclusion of skills and values, and learner-centred pedagogies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-47
Number of pages21
JournalCurriculum and Teaching
Issue number1
Early online date1 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 James Nicholas Publishers.


  • curriculum
  • development
  • education
  • implementation
  • reform
  • skills


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