Governance of Government Middle Schools in Beijing and Delhi: Teacher Training, Career Advancement and Stakeholder Communication

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Effective management and utilization of fiscal, physical and human resources is of crucial importance in advancing the quality of basic education. In recent years, reforms of educational governance around the world have especially aimed to improve student learning outcomes by strengthening education accountability. However, reforms so far have overemphasized commanding and controlling teachers and schools. The equally important aspect of institutionalized support, albeit being part and parcel to a more comprehensive accountability relationship, is under-emphasized and underexplored. This paper examines these measures, especially in-service training, career advancement and communication among the stakeholders, as practiced in government middle schools of Beijing and Delhi, capital cities of India and China which have two of the largest basic education systems in the world. While the comparison reveals substantial variations in terms of the structure and providers of such support, common challenges within the two systems suggest that for the support to be effective and received positively, it needs to match the needs or incentives of the teacher recipients and advance their professional capacity.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationDelhi
PublisherInstitute of Chinese Studies
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameICS Occasional Papers
PublisherInstitute of Chinese Studies

Bibliographical note

I am very grateful to the editors and reviewers for helpful comments, and to Dr. Anjana Mangalagiri for comments on an earlier draft. Results of the paper were presented at, amongst others, the International Conference on Inclusive Quality Education: Towards SDG4 and the Wednesday Seminars at the Institute of Chinese Studies. I am thankful to comments received from these conference and seminar participants.


  • China
  • India
  • education governance
  • accountability
  • government schools


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