High-throughput combinatorial chemical bath deposition: The case of doping Cu (In, Ga) Se film with antimony

Zongkai YAN, Xiaokun ZHANG, Guang LI, Yuxing CUI, Zhaolian JIANG, Wen LIU, Zhi PENG, Yong XIANG*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The conventional methods for designing and preparing thin film based on wet process remain a challenge due to disadvantages such as time-consuming and ineffective, which hinders the development of novel materials. Herein, we present a high-throughput combinatorial technique for continuous thin film preparation relied on chemical bath deposition (CBD). The method is ideally used to prepare high-throughput combinatorial material library with low decomposition temperatures and high water- or oxygen-sensitivity at relatively high-temperature. To check this system, a Cu(In, Ga)Se (CIGS) thin films library doped with 0–19.04 at.% of antimony (Sb) was taken as an example to evaluate the regulation of varying Sb doping concentration on the grain growth, structure, morphology and electrical properties of CIGS thin film systemically. Combined with the Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), automated X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for rapid screening and Localized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (LEIS), it was confirmed that this combinatorial high-throughput system could be used to identify the composition with the optimal grain orientation growth, microstructure and electrical properties systematically, through accurately monitoring the doping content and material composition. According to the characterization results, a Sb 2 Se 3 quasi-liquid phase promoted CIGS film-growth model has been put forward. In addition to CIGS thin film reported here, the combinatorial CBD also could be applied to the high-throughput screening of other sulfide thin film material systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1235-1241
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Surface Science
Early online date1 Sept 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

This work was supported by National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFB0700201), National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. SS015AA034204), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.51472044). The authors would like to thank Prof. Xian Jian at University of Electronic Science and Technology of China for carefully and reliably discussing.


  • Antimony doping
  • Chemical bath deposition
  • CIGS
  • High throughput combinatorial synthesis


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