Image fusion based visible watermarking using dual-tree complex wavelet transform

Yongjian HU*, Jiwu HUANG, Sam KWONG, Y. K. CHAN

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Book Chapters | Papers in Conference ProceedingsConference paper (refereed)Researchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Digital watermarking has been researched extensively due to its potential use for data security and copyright protection. Much of the literature has focused on developing invisible watermarking algorithms. However, not much has been done on visible watermarking. A visible watermark is apparently needed for copyright notification. This work proposes a new framework of visible watermarking based on image fusion, a common technique used in combining images acquired from different modalities. To better protect the host features and increase the robustness of the watermark, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is used. A new classification strategy is proposed to classify complex wavelet coefficients into 6 classes with different perceptual significance. The embedding decision can be made based on the classification information. Small watermark coefficients are prohibited from embedding. In the host edges, the insertion of watermark energy is controlled by using the inversely proportional embedding scheme to better preserve the sensitive region, while in other regions, the embedding strength becomes stronger as texture activity increases. This work also addresses the problem of low-pass subband watermark embedding, which is a special issue of visible water-marking. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm yields significantly superior image quality than the current DCT-based method.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDigital Watermarking: Second International Workshop, IWDW 2003, Seoul, Korea, October 20-22, 2003, Revised Papers
EditorsTon KALKER, Ingemar J. COX, Yong Man RO
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
PublisherSpringer Berlin
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9783540246244
ISBN (Print)9783540210610
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes
EventInternational Workshop on Digital Watermarking 2003 - Seoul, Korea, Republic of
Duration: 20 Oct 200322 Oct 2003

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


ConferenceInternational Workshop on Digital Watermarking 2003
Country/TerritoryKorea, Republic of


  • Adaptive watermarking
  • Complex wavelet
  • Image fusion
  • Image watermarking
  • Visible watermark


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