Improving the ionic conductivity of the LLZO–LZO thin film through indium doping

Zongkai YAN, Yu SONG, Shuai WU, Yongmin WU, Shipai SONG, Xinyu WANG, Yanlin ZHU, Junsong CHEN, Rui GUO, Yong XIANG*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


A solid-state electrolyte with an ionic conductivity comparable to that of a liquid electrolyte is demanded of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 (LLZO) is considered to be a promising candidate due to its good thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical window. However, the synthesis of a stable cubic-phase LLZO thin film with enhanced densification at a relatively low thermal treatment temperature is yet to be developed. Indium is predicted to be a possible dopant to stabilize the cubic-phase LLZO (c-LLZO). Herein, via a nanolayer stacking process, a LLZO–Li2 CO3 –In2 O3 multilayer solid electrolyte precursor was obtained. After thermal annealing at different temperatures, the effects of indium doping on the formation of c-LLZO and the ionic conductivities of the prepared LLZO–LZO thin film were systematically investigated. The highest ionic conductivity of 9.6 × 10−6 S·cm–1 was obtained at an annealing temperature of 800 C because the incorporation of indium promoted the formation of c-LLZO and the highly conductive LLZO–LZO interfaces. At the end, a model of LLZO–LZO interface-enhancing ionic conductivity was proposed. This work provides a new approach for the development of low-temperature LLZO-based, solid-state thin-film batteries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number426
Number of pages10
Issue number4
Early online date15 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

This research was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFB0700201, No. 2017YFB0702802 and 2018YFB0905400), Shanghai Venus Project (No. 18QB1402600) and the startup funds from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China.


  • Indium doping
  • LLZO
  • Solid electrolytes thin film


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