In Vivo Computing Strategies for Tumor Sensitization and Targeting

Shaolong SHI, Yifan CHEN, Xin YAO

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Several evolution strategies for in vivo computation are proposed with the aim of realizing tumor sensitization and targeting (TST) by externally manipulable nanoswimmers. In such targeting systems, nanoswimmers assembled by magnetic nanoparticles are externally manipulated to search for the tumor in the high-risk tissue by a rotating magnetic field produced by a coil system. This process can be interpreted as in vivo computation, where the tumor in the high-risk tissue corresponds to the global maximum or minimum of the in vivo optimization problem, the nanoswimmers are seen as the computational agents, the tumor-triggered biological gradient field (BGF) is used for fitness evaluation of the agents, and the high-risk tissue is the search space. Considering that the state-of-the-art magnetic nanoswimmer control method can only actuate all the nanoswimmers heading in the same direction simultaneously, we introduce the orthokinetic movement strategies into the agent location updating in the existing swarm intelligence algorithms. Especially, the gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is revisited and the corresponding in vivo optimization algorithm called orthokinetic GSA (OGSA) is proposed to carry out the TST. Furthermore, to determine the direction of the orthokinetic agent movement in every iteration of the operation, we propose several strategies according to the fitness ranking of the nanoswimmers in the BGF. To verify the superiority of the OGSA and choose the optimal evolution strategy, some numerical experiments are presented and compared with that of the brute-force search, which represents the traditional method for TST. It is found that the TST performance can be improved by the weak priority evolution strategy (WP-ES) in most of the scenarios © 2013 IEEE.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4970-4980
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Issue number6
Early online date29 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Evolution strategy
  • magnetic field control
  • magnetic nanoswimmers
  • swarm intelligence
  • tumor sensitization and targeting (TST)


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