In contrast to traditional assumptions about Asian conflict management, interdependence may induce cooperative approaches to conflict rather than avoidance or competition. Findings from supervisors on 216 subcontractors in Korea, Japan, and Hong Kong support the hypotheses that interdependence leads to cooperative conflict which results in constructive conflict which in turn helps the subcontractor contribute to the main contractor. However, competitive and avoiding conflict were found to be useful in Taiwan. Results were interpreted as suggesting that the theory of cooperation and competition offers the potential for strengthening conflict management in East Asia and that cooperative conflict, rather than avoiding, may reinforce feelings of interdependence in East Asia.
TJOSVOLD, D. W., CHO, Y. C., LIU, C. M., LIU, W. C., & SASAKI, S. (2001). Interdependence and managing conflict with sub-contractors in the construction industry in East Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 18(3), 295-313. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010693627443