Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental burdens in the lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) production stage are essential issues for their sustainable development. In this study, eleven ecological metrics about six typical types of LIBs are investigated using the life cycle assessment method based on the local data of China to assess the ecological impacts and the possibility of carbon neutralization of battery production. Furthermore, the GHG emissions from battery production under electricity mixes in China in the next 40 years are predicted. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The GHG emissions in the production of ternary battery production in China are from 114.3 kg CO2-eq/kWh to 137.0 kg CO2-eq/kWh, which are greater than those of the lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries (82.5 kg CO2-eq/kWh). It is found that the carbon emission from cathode production dominates the whole battery production, followed by battery assembly. (2) Almost all ecological indexes of LFP batteries are better than those of ternary batteries. It is beneficial to reduce environmental damage by prioritizing LFP batteries. (3) Under the electricity mixes in China in 2030 and 2060, GHG emissions from battery production will be reduced by at least 30% and 90% compared with 2020, respectively. Green energy is a powerful path to realizing carbon neutralization in battery production.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51977131 and 51877138 ), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (Grant No. 19ZR1435800 ), the State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy under Project No. KF2020 , and Shanghai Science and Technology Development Fund (Grant No. 19QA1406200 ).
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- Battery production
- Environmental impacts
- Greenhouse gas emissions
- Life cycle assessment
- Lithium-ion batteries