Job-related factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese food delivery riders: A cross-sectional survey

Li CHEN, Dan WU*, Christopher BULLEN, Jinsong CHEN, Francis CHEUNG, Yonglin ZHANG, Hongchen LUO

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review


Food delivery drivers represent a rapidly growing occupational group in China in recent years. Their unique work patterns such as a complex work environment and high time-pressure may subject them to more severe tobacco use issues compared to other professions. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of tobacco use within this group and examine the underlying reasons behind it.

A cross-sectional, multistage sampling design was conducted to select 1879 food delivery riders from Guangzhou and Shenzhen. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from August to December 2022. Chisquared analysis and binary logistic regression analysis, adjusted for factors including gender, education level, type of employment, alcohol use, job-related uncertainty stress, and emotional exhaustion, were used to explore the key factors associated with smoking among this occupational group.

Altogether, 65.5% of individuals in this sample were smokers, with 69.5% among males and 26.2% among females. Factors found to be significantly associated with smoking behavior were male sex (AOR=5.48; 95% CI: 3.74–8.02), education level of junior high school or lower (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.21–2.11), education level of senior high school (AOR=1.52; 95% CI: 1.18–1.95), full-time job (AOR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.18–1.80), alcohol use (AOR=3.91; 95% CI: 3.14–4.87), moderate level of job-related uncertainty stress (AOR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.42–0.81), high level of emotional exhaustion (AOR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.17–2.10) and moderate level of emotional exhaustion (AOR=1.52; 95% CI: 1.00–2.30).

Demographic factors like gender, education level, job type, and substance use should be considered in designing smoking cessation campaigns for this group. Improving work conditions, reducing emotional exhaustion, and managing stress may also reduce smoking and enhance the well-being of these riders.
Original languageEnglish
JournalTobacco Induced Diseases
Early online date15 May 2024
Publication statusPublished - May 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Li C. et al.


  • smoking
  • job-related uncertainty stress
  • emotional exhaustion
  • food delivery rider
  • tobacco use


Dive into the research topics of 'Job-related factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese food delivery riders: A cross-sectional survey'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this