K-12 teacher readiness for flipped foreign language teaching: scale development and validation

Shuqiong LUO, Di ZOU*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Although studies investigating online learning and teaching have proliferated recently, one area that has been underexplored is foreign language teachers’ readiness to incorporate the flipped classroom into their repertoire at the K-12 level. Accordingly, the present study aims to provide an instrument to assess K-12 foreign language teachers’ teaching readiness to flip their classes. The study draws on data from 489 pre-service and in-service K-12-level foreign language teachers using an online platform during the fall of 2022. Results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and first- and second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were attained via responses to a 20-item questionnaire comprising seven dimensions: technological content knowledge (TCK), technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK), perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEU), attitude (A), and behavioral intention (BI). Findings revealed that the newly developed instrument measuring teachers’ readiness to flip their classes is valid and reliable. Researchers and teacher educators may use this scale to gain a greater understanding of K-12 foreign language teachers’ readiness for flipped teaching with domain-specific items.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Research on Technology in Education
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 7 Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Later, Hung () developed and validated the 18-item Teacher Readiness for Online Learning Measure to assess elementary and middle school teachers’ readiness for online learning. This scale explored four dimensions on a five-point Likert scale: (1) self-directed learning, (2) institutional support, (3) computer self-efficacy, and (4) learning-transfer self-efficacy. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of these four dimensions ranged from 0.78 to 0.95. The adequate convergent validity of the scale was supported by standard estimates ranging from 0.54 to 0.95. The reliability and validity of Hung’s scale were examined and confirmed through EFA and CFA; however, the questionnaire focused on teachers as learners in online learning, rather than teachers for online teaching.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 ISTE.


  • flipped teaching
  • K-12 foreign language teachers
  • questionnaire
  • Readiness
  • scale development


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