Layered ensemble architecture for time series forecasting

Md. Mustafizur RAHMAN, Md. Monirul ISLAM, Kazuyuki MURASE, Xin YAO

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Time series forecasting (TSF) has been widely used in many application areas such as science, engineering, and finance. The phenomena generating time series are usually unknown and information available for forecasting is only limited to the past values of the series. It is, therefore, necessary to use an appropriate number of past values, termed lag, for forecasting. This paper proposes a layered ensemble architecture (LEA) for TSF problems. Our LEA consists of two layers, each of which uses an ensemble of multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks. While the first ensemble layer tries to find an appropriate lag, the second ensemble layer employs the obtained lag for forecasting. Unlike most previous work on TSF, the proposed architecture considers both accuracy and diversity of the individual networks in constructing an ensemble. LEA trains different networks in the ensemble by using different training sets with an aim of maintaining diversity among the networks. However, it uses the appropriate lag and combines the best trained networks to construct the ensemble. This indicates LEAs emphasis on accuracy of the networks. The proposed architecture has been tested extensively on time series data of neural network (NN)3 and NN5 competitions. It has also been tested on several standard benchmark time series data. In terms of forecasting accuracy, our experimental results have revealed clearly that LEA is better than other ensemble and nonensemble methods. © 2015 IEEE.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7047831
Pages (from-to)270-283
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Issue number1
Early online date24 Feb 2015
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Accuracy
  • Base predictors
  • Diversity
  • Ensemble
  • Time series forecasting (TSF)


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