《佛般泥洹經》和《遊行經》漢譯差異突顯的佛傳文學特色

Translated title of the contribution: Literary Features and Narratives of Buddha: The Differences between the Chinese Translation of Buddha-Parinirvāna Sūtra and the Mahāparinibbānasutta of the Dīrgha-āgama

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

Abstract

《佛般泥洹經》記述佛陀證入無餘涅槃前從王舍城走到娑羅雙樹寂滅的一年間,在不同的城市村落,向出家、在家的信眾甚至外道說法的經過和內容。本文探析帛法祖漢譯《佛般泥洹經》在細節上用字和營造意境的文學特色。文中首先用《佛般泥洹經》和《長阿含經.遊行經》的漢文譯本作對照比較,分析兩部經在文字上的差異造成的意境層次之差別。內文先分經文內容為四情節段落,從而比較兩經處理「細節」的技巧。我們發現在描述場景人物這些富有文學內涵的細節差異最大。這些細節微妙地傳送佛陀「身」、「心」狀況,跟佛傳文學的寫作關係密切。本文次用《法句經》和《法句譬喻經》的「泥洹品」與《佛般泥洹經》的對應內容對照,探討《佛般泥洹經》與《長阿含經.遊行經》細節有別的原因。同時以《法句經》依「涅槃寂靜」為教學目標角度探討《佛般泥洹經》呈現佛陀自求「自求勝法」「度生死畏」的形象精神。最後總結《佛般泥洹經》作為佛傳文學之特色。

Buddha-Parinirvāṇa Sūtra narrates the journey of Buddha starting from Rāja-gṛha one year before attaining the great nirvana. The sutra could be regarded as a record of the places Buddha had travelled and stayed, giving an account of the people he had met and the dharma he had taught to the sangha and layman on the way to the countryside of Kuśi-nagara. This paper probes into the literary features of the Chinese translation of Buddha-Parinirvāṇa Sūtra in the details of narratives. We will first compare Buddha-Parinirvāṇa Sūtra with the Mahāparinibbānasutta of the Dirgha-agama, analyzing the textual differences from the point of view of wording and aesthetic realm beyond the expression. This paper divides the text into four parts and selects key plot points to compare the literary techniques in showing the idiosyncrasies of Buddha. We will then takes the Buddha-Parinirvāṇa Sūtra in comparison with the chapter on Nirvāṇa in Dharmapada and Dharmapada-apadāna in order to point out the reasons of differences and the unique implication of Buddha-Parinirvāṇa Sūtra in terms of self-attainment of Parinirvāṇa . In conclusion we will interpret the deep implications of Buddha-Parinirvāṇa Sūtra and its characteristics in way of attending to the literary narratives of Buddha.
Translated title of the contributionLiterary Features and Narratives of Buddha: The Differences between the Chinese Translation of Buddha-Parinirvāna Sūtra and the Mahāparinibbānasutta of the Dīrgha-āgama
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)5-43
Number of pages39
Journal漢學研究
Volume37
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019

Keywords

  • Buddha-Parinirvāṇa Sūtra
  • Mahāparinibbānasutta of the Dirgha-agama
  • Self-attainment
  • Literary narratives of Buddha
  • Bo Fazu
  • 佛般泥洹經
  • 遊行經
  • 自求勝法
  • 佛傳文學
  • 帛法祖

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