Lithium-ion battery sudden death : safety degradation and failure mechanism

Guangxu ZHANG, Xuezhe WEI, Xueyuan WANG, Jiangong ZHU*, Siqi CHEN, Gang WEI, Xiaopeng TANG, Xin LAI, Haifeng DAI

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review


Environmental pollution and energy scarcity have acted as catalysts for the energy revolution, particularly driving the rapid progression of vehicle electrification. Lithium-ion batteries play a fundamental role as the pivotal components in electric vehicles. Nevertheless, battery sudden death poses substantial challenges to battery design and management. This work comprehensively investigates the failure mechanism of cell sudden death under different degradation paths and its impact on cell performances. Multi-angle characterization analysis shows that lithium plating is the primary failure mechanism of battery sudden death under different degradation paths. However, the formation mechanisms of lithium plating differ in various degradation paths. In the path-L and path-F, the limited lithium intercalation rate in graphite leads to lithium plating, while localized anode drying and uneven potential distribution are the causes in the path-H and path-R. Furthermore, sudden death significantly reduces the cell electrochemical performances and thermal safety, but the cell performance evolution varies under different degradation paths. Sudden death primarily affects the anode interface polarization process in the path-L and path-F, with a more severe impact on cell thermal safety. However, sudden death mainly affects the charge transfer process, with a relatively milder impact on cell thermal safety. These findings can provide valuable insights for optimizing battery design and management.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100333
Early online date16 Apr 2024
Publication statusPublished - May 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Elsevier B.V.


  • Cell performance
  • Failure mechanism
  • Lithium plating
  • Lithium-ion batteries
  • Sudden death


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