Lockdown Lives: A Longitudinal Study of Inter-Relationships Among Feelings of Loneliness, Social Contacts, and Solidarity During the COVID-19 Lockdown in Early 2020

Jolien A. VAN BREEN, Maja KUTLACA, Yasin KOÇ, Bertus F. JERONIMUS, Anne Margit REITSEMA, Veljko JOVANOVIĆ, Maximilian AGOSTINI, Jocelyn J. BÉLANGER, Ben GÜTZKOW, Jannis KREIENKAMP, Georgios ABAKOUMKIN, Jamilah Hanum ABDUL KHAIYOM, Vjollca AHMEDI, Handan AKKAS, Carlos A. ALMENARA, Mohsin ATTA, Sabahat Cigdem BAGCI, Sima BASEL, Edona BERISHA KIDA, Allan B. I. BERNARDONicholas R. BUTTRICK, Phatthanakit CHOBTHAMKIT, Hoon-Seok CHOI, Mioara CRISTEA, Sára CSABA, Kaja DAMNJANOVIC, Ivan DANYLIUK, Arobindu DASH, Daniela DI SANTO, Karen M. DOUGLAS, Violeta ENEA, Daiane Gracieli FALLER, Gavan FITZSIMONS, Alexandra GHEORGHIU, Ángel GÓMEZ, Ali HAMAIDIA, Qing HAN, Mai HELMY, Joevarian HUDIYANA, Ding-Yu JIANG, Željka KAMENOV, Anna KENDE, Shian-Ling KENG, Tra Thi Thanh KIEU, Kamila KOVYAZINA, Inna KOZYTSKA, Joshua KRAUSE, Arie W. KRUGLANSKI, Anton KURAPOV, Nóra Anna LANTOS, Edward P. LEMAY, Cokorda Bagus Jaya LESMANA, Winnifred R. LOUIS, Adrian LUEDERS, Najma Iqbal MALIK, Anton MARTINEZ, Kira McCABE, Jasmina MEHULIĆ, Mirra Noor MILLA, Idris MOHAMMED, Erica MOLINARIO, Manuel MOYANO, Hayat Muhammad, Silvana MULA, Hamdi MULUK, Solomiia MYRONIUK, Reza NAJAFI, Claudia F. NISA, Boglárka NYÚL, Paul A. O'KEEFE, Jose Javier OLIVAS OSUNA, Evgeny N. OSIN, Joonha PARK, Gennaro PICA, Antonio PIERRO, Jonas REES, Elena RESTA, Marika RULLO, Michelle K. RYAN, Adil SAMEKIN, Pekka SANTTILA, Edyta SASIN, Birga Mareen SCHUMPE, Heyla A. SELIM, Michael Vicente STANTON, Samiah SULTANA, Robbie M. SUTTON, Eleftheria TSELIOU, Akira UTSUGI, Caspar J. VAN LISSA, Kees VAN VEEN, Michelle R. VANDELLEN, Alexandra VÁZQUEZ, Robin WOLLAST, Victoria Wai-Lan YEUNG, Somayeh ZAND, Iris Lav ŽEŽELJ, Bang ZHENG, Andreas ZICK, Claudia Zúñiga, N. Pontus LEANDER

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

Abstract

We examine how social contacts and feelings of solidarity shape experiences of loneliness during the COVID-19 lockdown in early 2020. From the PsyCorona database, we obtained longitudinal data from 23 countries, collected between March and May 2020. The results demonstrated that although online contacts help to reduce feelings of loneliness, people who feel more lonely are less likely to use that strategy. Solidarity played only a small role in shaping feelings of loneliness during lockdown. Thus, it seems we must look beyond the current focus on online contact and solidarity to help people address feelings of loneliness during lockdown. Finally, online contacts did not function as a substitute for face-to-face contacts outside the home—in fact, more frequent online contact in earlier weeks predicted more frequent face-to-face contacts in later weeks. As such, this work provides relevant insights into how individuals manage the impact of restrictions on their social lives.
Original languageEnglish
Article number014616722110366
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Early online date25 Aug 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research received support from the New York University Abu Dhabi (VCDSF/75-71015), the University of Groningen (Sustainable Society & Ubbo Emmius Fund), and the Spanish government (COV20/00086).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • loneliness
  • longitudinal methodology
  • online communication
  • solidarity

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