Reviewing the massification of higher education in China in the last two decades, this article critically examines how the education markets have emerged and developed in China through engagements with three major minban HEIs for addressing different development needs of the country. More specifically, this article discusses 1) the rise of minban (people-run) higher education developed by different local social forces; 2) the invitation of overseas universities to co-develop transnational education programmes for meeting citizens’ pressing demands for higher education; 3) the engagements of leading institutions from overseas for research capacity advancement. Through the analysis of these different types of non-state-run HEIs, we would appreciate how the Chinese government has skilfully transformed its higher education systems through the tactical adoption of neoliberal practices for education market formation in the country. The present article also reflects upon the unique university governance model in China, clearly revealing how state-university relationship has been affected by the unique and strong historical, political, and institutional traditions of the country.
- Massification of higher education
- university governance
- Transnational higher education
- Private education
- China's higher education reforms