Measurement Invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale Across 26 Countries

Seulki Jang*, Eun Sook Kim, Chunhua Cao, Tammy D. Allen, Cary L. Cooper, Laurent M. Lapierre, Michael P. O’Driscoll, Juan I. Sanchez, Paul E. Spector, Steven A.Y. Poelmans, Nureya Abarca, Matilda Alexandrova, Alexandros Stamatios Antoniou, Barbara Beham, Paula Brough, Ilker Carikci, Pablo Ferreiro, Guillermo Fraile, Sabine Geurts, Ulla KinnunenChang Qin Lu, Luo Lu, Ivonne F. Moreno-Velázquez, Milan Pagon, Horea Pitariu, Volodymyr Salamatov, Oi Ling Siu, Satoru Shima, Marion K. Schulmeyer, Kati Tillemann, Maria Widerszal-Bazyl, Jong Min Woo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is a commonly used life satisfaction scale. Cross-cultural researchers use SWLS to compare mean scores of life satisfaction across countries. Despite the wide use of SWLS in cross-cultural studies, measurement invariance of SWLS has rarely been investigated, and previous studies showed inconsistent findings. Therefore, we examined the measurement invariance of SWLS with samples collected from 26 countries. To test measurement invariance, we utilized three measurement invariance techniques: (a) multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA), (b) multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (ML-CFA), and (c) alignment optimization methods. The three methods demonstrated that configural and metric invariances of life satisfaction held across 26 countries, whereas scalar invariance did not. With partial invariance testing, we identified that the intercepts of Items 2, 4, and 5 were noninvariant. Based on two invariant intercepts, factor means of countries were compared. Chile showed the highest factor mean; Spain and Bulgaria showed the lowest. The findings enhance our understanding of life satisfaction across countries, and they provide researchers and practitioners with practical guidance on how to conduct measurement invariance testing across countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)560-576
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Volume48
Issue number4
Early online date22 Mar 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017

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satisfaction with life
factor analysis
multi-level analysis
Bulgaria
Statistical Factor Analysis
cultural studies
Chile
Research Personnel
Spain

Keywords

  • alignment optimization method
  • cross-cultural differences
  • life satisfaction
  • measurement invaraince
  • measurement/statistics
  • multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA)
  • multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (ML-CFA)
  • multilevel multiple indicators multiple causes (ML-MIMIC)
  • satisfaction with life scale (SWLS)

Cite this

Jang, S., Kim, E. S., Cao, C., Allen, T. D., Cooper, C. L., Lapierre, L. M., ... Woo, J. M. (2017). Measurement Invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale Across 26 Countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(4), 560-576. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022117697844
Jang, Seulki ; Kim, Eun Sook ; Cao, Chunhua ; Allen, Tammy D. ; Cooper, Cary L. ; Lapierre, Laurent M. ; O’Driscoll, Michael P. ; Sanchez, Juan I. ; Spector, Paul E. ; Poelmans, Steven A.Y. ; Abarca, Nureya ; Alexandrova, Matilda ; Antoniou, Alexandros Stamatios ; Beham, Barbara ; Brough, Paula ; Carikci, Ilker ; Ferreiro, Pablo ; Fraile, Guillermo ; Geurts, Sabine ; Kinnunen, Ulla ; Lu, Chang Qin ; Lu, Luo ; Moreno-Velázquez, Ivonne F. ; Pagon, Milan ; Pitariu, Horea ; Salamatov, Volodymyr ; Siu, Oi Ling ; Shima, Satoru ; Schulmeyer, Marion K. ; Tillemann, Kati ; Widerszal-Bazyl, Maria ; Woo, Jong Min. / Measurement Invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale Across 26 Countries. In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2017 ; Vol. 48, No. 4. pp. 560-576.
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title = "Measurement Invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale Across 26 Countries",
abstract = "The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is a commonly used life satisfaction scale. Cross-cultural researchers use SWLS to compare mean scores of life satisfaction across countries. Despite the wide use of SWLS in cross-cultural studies, measurement invariance of SWLS has rarely been investigated, and previous studies showed inconsistent findings. Therefore, we examined the measurement invariance of SWLS with samples collected from 26 countries. To test measurement invariance, we utilized three measurement invariance techniques: (a) multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA), (b) multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (ML-CFA), and (c) alignment optimization methods. The three methods demonstrated that configural and metric invariances of life satisfaction held across 26 countries, whereas scalar invariance did not. With partial invariance testing, we identified that the intercepts of Items 2, 4, and 5 were noninvariant. Based on two invariant intercepts, factor means of countries were compared. Chile showed the highest factor mean; Spain and Bulgaria showed the lowest. The findings enhance our understanding of life satisfaction across countries, and they provide researchers and practitioners with practical guidance on how to conduct measurement invariance testing across countries.",
keywords = "alignment optimization method, cross-cultural differences, life satisfaction, measurement invaraince, measurement/statistics, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA), multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (ML-CFA), multilevel multiple indicators multiple causes (ML-MIMIC), satisfaction with life scale (SWLS)",
author = "Seulki Jang and Kim, {Eun Sook} and Chunhua Cao and Allen, {Tammy D.} and Cooper, {Cary L.} and Lapierre, {Laurent M.} and O’Driscoll, {Michael P.} and Sanchez, {Juan I.} and Spector, {Paul E.} and Poelmans, {Steven A.Y.} and Nureya Abarca and Matilda Alexandrova and Antoniou, {Alexandros Stamatios} and Barbara Beham and Paula Brough and Ilker Carikci and Pablo Ferreiro and Guillermo Fraile and Sabine Geurts and Ulla Kinnunen and Lu, {Chang Qin} and Luo Lu and Moreno-Vel{\'a}zquez, {Ivonne F.} and Milan Pagon and Horea Pitariu and Volodymyr Salamatov and Siu, {Oi Ling} and Satoru Shima and Schulmeyer, {Marion K.} and Kati Tillemann and Maria Widerszal-Bazyl and Woo, {Jong Min}",
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Jang, S, Kim, ES, Cao, C, Allen, TD, Cooper, CL, Lapierre, LM, O’Driscoll, MP, Sanchez, JI, Spector, PE, Poelmans, SAY, Abarca, N, Alexandrova, M, Antoniou, AS, Beham, B, Brough, P, Carikci, I, Ferreiro, P, Fraile, G, Geurts, S, Kinnunen, U, Lu, CQ, Lu, L, Moreno-Velázquez, IF, Pagon, M, Pitariu, H, Salamatov, V, Siu, OL, Shima, S, Schulmeyer, MK, Tillemann, K, Widerszal-Bazyl, M & Woo, JM 2017, 'Measurement Invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale Across 26 Countries', Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 560-576. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022117697844

Measurement Invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale Across 26 Countries. / Jang, Seulki; Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua; Allen, Tammy D.; Cooper, Cary L.; Lapierre, Laurent M.; O’Driscoll, Michael P.; Sanchez, Juan I.; Spector, Paul E.; Poelmans, Steven A.Y.; Abarca, Nureya; Alexandrova, Matilda; Antoniou, Alexandros Stamatios; Beham, Barbara; Brough, Paula; Carikci, Ilker; Ferreiro, Pablo; Fraile, Guillermo; Geurts, Sabine; Kinnunen, Ulla; Lu, Chang Qin; Lu, Luo; Moreno-Velázquez, Ivonne F.; Pagon, Milan; Pitariu, Horea; Salamatov, Volodymyr; Siu, Oi Ling; Shima, Satoru; Schulmeyer, Marion K.; Tillemann, Kati; Widerszal-Bazyl, Maria; Woo, Jong Min.

In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 48, No. 4, 01.05.2017, p. 560-576.

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measurement Invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale Across 26 Countries

AU - Jang, Seulki

AU - Kim, Eun Sook

AU - Cao, Chunhua

AU - Allen, Tammy D.

AU - Cooper, Cary L.

AU - Lapierre, Laurent M.

AU - O’Driscoll, Michael P.

AU - Sanchez, Juan I.

AU - Spector, Paul E.

AU - Poelmans, Steven A.Y.

AU - Abarca, Nureya

AU - Alexandrova, Matilda

AU - Antoniou, Alexandros Stamatios

AU - Beham, Barbara

AU - Brough, Paula

AU - Carikci, Ilker

AU - Ferreiro, Pablo

AU - Fraile, Guillermo

AU - Geurts, Sabine

AU - Kinnunen, Ulla

AU - Lu, Chang Qin

AU - Lu, Luo

AU - Moreno-Velázquez, Ivonne F.

AU - Pagon, Milan

AU - Pitariu, Horea

AU - Salamatov, Volodymyr

AU - Siu, Oi Ling

AU - Shima, Satoru

AU - Schulmeyer, Marion K.

AU - Tillemann, Kati

AU - Widerszal-Bazyl, Maria

AU - Woo, Jong Min

PY - 2017/5/1

Y1 - 2017/5/1

N2 - The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is a commonly used life satisfaction scale. Cross-cultural researchers use SWLS to compare mean scores of life satisfaction across countries. Despite the wide use of SWLS in cross-cultural studies, measurement invariance of SWLS has rarely been investigated, and previous studies showed inconsistent findings. Therefore, we examined the measurement invariance of SWLS with samples collected from 26 countries. To test measurement invariance, we utilized three measurement invariance techniques: (a) multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA), (b) multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (ML-CFA), and (c) alignment optimization methods. The three methods demonstrated that configural and metric invariances of life satisfaction held across 26 countries, whereas scalar invariance did not. With partial invariance testing, we identified that the intercepts of Items 2, 4, and 5 were noninvariant. Based on two invariant intercepts, factor means of countries were compared. Chile showed the highest factor mean; Spain and Bulgaria showed the lowest. The findings enhance our understanding of life satisfaction across countries, and they provide researchers and practitioners with practical guidance on how to conduct measurement invariance testing across countries.

AB - The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is a commonly used life satisfaction scale. Cross-cultural researchers use SWLS to compare mean scores of life satisfaction across countries. Despite the wide use of SWLS in cross-cultural studies, measurement invariance of SWLS has rarely been investigated, and previous studies showed inconsistent findings. Therefore, we examined the measurement invariance of SWLS with samples collected from 26 countries. To test measurement invariance, we utilized three measurement invariance techniques: (a) multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA), (b) multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (ML-CFA), and (c) alignment optimization methods. The three methods demonstrated that configural and metric invariances of life satisfaction held across 26 countries, whereas scalar invariance did not. With partial invariance testing, we identified that the intercepts of Items 2, 4, and 5 were noninvariant. Based on two invariant intercepts, factor means of countries were compared. Chile showed the highest factor mean; Spain and Bulgaria showed the lowest. The findings enhance our understanding of life satisfaction across countries, and they provide researchers and practitioners with practical guidance on how to conduct measurement invariance testing across countries.

KW - alignment optimization method

KW - cross-cultural differences

KW - life satisfaction

KW - measurement invaraince

KW - measurement/statistics

KW - multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA)

KW - multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (ML-CFA)

KW - multilevel multiple indicators multiple causes (ML-MIMIC)

KW - satisfaction with life scale (SWLS)

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85018735583&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - https://commons.ln.edu.hk/sw_master/6270

U2 - 10.1177/0022022117697844

DO - 10.1177/0022022117697844

M3 - Journal Article (refereed)

AN - SCOPUS:85018735583

VL - 48

SP - 560

EP - 576

JO - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

JF - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

SN - 0022-0221

IS - 4

ER -