時隔2000年,悲劇藝術在英國迎來了第二次高峰,其主要代表人物是全世界家喻戶曉的莎士比亞。莎翁雖然不如三位古希臘大師那樣高產,但他所有12部悲劇都能夠流傳后世,其中最為人稱道的是《哈姆萊特》、《麥克白》、《李爾王》和《奧瑟羅》。縱觀這四大悲劇,我們不難在其中發現一個共同點,即現有基督教倫理秩序與新興城邦國家個性解放之間的沖突。以往的文學批評似乎過于看重莎翁對文藝復興新人的歌頌。事實上,他對普遍人性的看法相當悲觀,或者至少有褒有貶。我們在其作品中看到的更多是對世襲王權崩塌的惋惜以及對家庭倫理喪失的嗟嘆。 After a long hiatus of 2,000 years,the art of tragedy peaked once again in the Elizabethan England,and its indisputable representative is William Shakespeare,whose name has become familiar to readers all over the world. Although he is less prolific than the three Greek masters,all his twelve tragedies have survived his time and four of them,namely,Hamlet,Macbeth,King Lear,and Othello,are remembered as arguably his best works. If we examine these four texts alongside one another,we may find that they share an important commonality,that is,they all deal with the prevalent tension of the age between the existing Christian moral order inherited from the medieval times and the onslaught of individualism which is thought to be the foundation of modernity. Critics in the past seemed to have a tendency to overemphasize Shakespeare’s extolment of the new Renaissance man,but the fact is that his view of human nature in general is rather somber or at least ambiguous. More often than not,his tragic works leave upon readers a great sense of regret over the collapse of traditional monarchy and the erosion of Christian family ethic.
|Translated title of the contribution||Moral tensions in Shakespeare’s tragedies|
|Original language||Chinese (Simplified)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Dec 2016|