Nanoscale fluid mechanics and energy conversion

Xi CHEN, Baoxing XU, Ling LIU

Research output: Journal PublicationsReview articleOther Review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Under nanoconfinement, fluid molecules and ions exhibit radically different configurations, properties, and energetics from those of their bulk counterparts. These unique characteristics of nanoconfined fluids, along with the unconventional interactions with solids at the nanoscale, have provided many opportunities for engineering innovation. With properly designed nanoconfinement, several nanofluidic systems have been devised in our group in the past several years to achieve energy conversion functions with high efficiencies. This review is dedicated to elucidating the unique characteristics of nanofluidics, introducing several novel nanofluidic systems combining nanoporous materials with functional fluids, and to unveiling their working mechanisms. In all these systems, the ultra-large surface area available in nanoporous materials provides an ideal platform for seamlessly interfacing with nanoconfined fluids, and efficiently converting energy between the mechanical, thermal, and electrical forms. These systems have been demonstrated to have great potentials for applications including energy dissipation/absorption, energy trapping, actuation, and energy harvesting. Their efficiencies can be further enhanced by designing efforts based upon improved understanding of nanofluidics, which represents an important addition to classical fluid mechanics. Through the few systems exemplified in this review, the emerging research field of nanoscale fluid mechanics may promote more exciting nanofluidic phenomena and mechanisms, with increasing applications by encompassing aspects of mechanics, materials, physics, chemistry, biology, etc. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.
Original languageEnglish
Article number50803
JournalApplied Mechanics Reviews
Issue number5
Early online date29 May 2014
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

The work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11172231 and 11372241), AFOSR (FA9550-12-1-0159), National Science Foundation (CMMI-0643726), ARPA-E and DARPA (W91CRB-11-C-0112). L.L. acknowledges financial support by Utah State University and Space Dynamics Lab.


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