Learning and evolution are two fundamental forms of adaptation from nature. This paper presents a nature inspired neural network ensemble learning (EENCL), in which evolution is another fundamental form of adaptation in addition to learning. Learning in EENCL is conducted at the individual level based on negative correlation learning that encourages each individual neural network to learn differently. Evolution in EENCL is processed by evolutionary programming at the population level to evolve a population of diverse neural networks. One distinct feature of EENCL is its adaptability to a dynamic environment. In other words, EENCL can make neural network ensembles adapt to an environment as well as changes in the environment. The evolution and learning in EENCL make the adaptation of neural network ensembles to a dynamic environment much more effective and efficient. © 2008 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. All rights reserved.
- evolutionary learning
- nature inspired learning
- negative correlation learning
- neural network ensemble